Petrogenesis of olivine-phyric shergottite Larkman Nunatak 06319: Implications for enriched components in martian basalts

Sarbadhikari, AB, Day JMD, Liu Y, Rumble D, Taylor LA.  2009.  Petrogenesis of olivine-phyric shergottite Larkman Nunatak 06319: Implications for enriched components in martian basalts. Geochimica Et Cosmochimica Acta. 73:2190-2214.

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crystal size distributions, differentiation history, dynamic crystallization, elephant moraine a79001, isotopic, lherzolitic, oxygen fugacity, shergottites, shock metamorphism, SNC meteorites, systematics, trace-element


We report on the petrography and geochemistry of the newly discovered olivine-phyric shergottite Larkman Nunatak (LAR) 06319. The meteorite is porphyritic, consisting of megacrysts of olivine (<= 2.5 mm in length, F(O77-52)) and prismatic zoned pyroxene crystals with Wo(3)En(71) in the cores to Wo(8-30)En(23-45) at the rims. The groundmass is composed of finer grained olivine (<0.25 mm, Fo(62-46)), Fe-rich augite and pigeonite, maskelynite and minor quantities of chromite, ulvospinel, magnetite, ilmenite, phosphates, sulfides and glass. Oxygen fugacity estimates, derived from the olivine-pyroxene-spinel geo-barometer, indicate that LAR 06319 formed under more oxidizing conditions (QFM -1.7) than for depleted shergottites. The whole-rock composition of LAR 06319 is also enriched in incompatible trace elements relative to depleted shergottites, with a trace-element pattern that is nearly identical to that of olivine-phyric shergottite NWA 1068. The oxygen isotope composition of LAR 06319 (Delta(17)O = 0.29 +/- 0.03) confirms its martian origin. Olivine megacrysts in LAR 06319 are phenocrystic, with the most Mg-rich megacryst olivine being close to equilibrium with the bulk rock. A notable feature of LAR 06319 is that its olivine megacryst grains contain abundant melt inclusions hosted within the forsterite cores. These early-trapped melt inclusions have similar trace element abundances and patterns to that of the whole-rock, providing powerful evidence for closed-system magmatic behavior for LAR 06319. Calculation of the parental melt trace element composition indicates a whole-rock composition for LAR 06319 that was controlled by pigeonite and augite during the earliest stages of crystallization and by apatite in the latest stages. Crystal size distribution and spatial distribution pattern analyses of olivine indicate at least two different crystal populations. This is most simply interpreted as crystallization of megacryst olivine in magma conduits, followed by eruption and subsequent crystallization of groundmass olivine. LAR 06319 shows close affinity in mineral and whole-rock chemistry to olivine-phyric shergottite, NWA 1068 and the basaltic shergottite NWA 4468. The remarkable features of these meteorites are that they have relatively similar quantities of mafic minerals compared with olivine-phyric shergottites (e.g., Y-980459, Dho 019), but flat and elevated rare earth element patterns more consistent with the LREE-enriched basaltic shergottites (e.g., Shergotty, Los Angeles). This relationship can be interpreted as arising from partial melting of an enriched mantle source and subsequent crystal-liquid fractionation to form the enriched olivine-phyric and basaltic shergottites, or by assimilation of incompatible-element enriched martian crust. The similarity in the composition of early-trapped melt inclusions and the whole-rock for LAR 06319 indicates that any crustal assimilation must have occurred prior to crystallization of megacryst olivine, restricting such processes to the deeper portions of the crust. Thus, we favor LAR06319 forming from partial melting of an "enriched" and oxidized mantle reservoir, with fractional crystallization of the parent melt upon leaving the mantle. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.