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McGowan, JA, Deyle ER, Ye H, Carter ML, Perretti CT, Seger KD, de Verneil A, Sugihara G.  2017.  Predicting coastal algal blooms in Southern California. Ecology.   10.1002/ecy.1804   AbstractWebsite

The irregular appearance of planktonic algae blooms off the coast of southern California has been a source of wonder for over a century. Although large algal blooms can have significant negative impacts on ecosystems and human health, a predictive understanding of these events has eluded science, and many have come to regard them as ultimately random phenomena. However, the highly nonlinear nature of ecological dynamics can give the appearance of randomness and stress traditional methods—such as model fitting or analysis of variance—to the point of breaking. The intractability of this problem from a classical linear standpoint can thus give the impression that algal blooms are fundamentally unpredictable. Here, we use an exceptional time series study of coastal phytoplankton dynamics at La Jolla, CA, with an equation-free modeling approach, to show that these phenomena are not random, but can be understood as nonlinear population dynamics forced by external stochastic drivers (so-called “stochastic chaos”). The combination of this modeling approach with an extensive dataset allows us to not only describe historical behavior and clarify existing hypotheses about the mechanisms, but also make out-of-sample predictions of recent algal blooms at La Jolla that were not included in the model development. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Koslow, JA, Miller EF, McGowan JA.  2015.  Dramatic declines in coastal and oceanic fish communities off California. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 538:221-227.   10.3354/meps11444   AbstractWebsite

The California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations (CalCOFI) ichthyoplankton surveys and systematic sampling of southern California power plant cooling-water intakes (PPI) provide independent, complementary time series to assess fish communities off southern California from nearshore to oceanic environments. The PPI program has sampled the shallow nearshore fish community at 5 sites along the coast of southern California since 1972, while CalCOFI has sampled fish larvae along 6 transects at standard stations ranging from 35 m depth to more than 500 km offshore since 1951. Recently published analyses of these data sets led us to examine potential relationships between them. Although there was limited overlap in the taxa sampled by the 2 programs, key multivariate patterns were highly correlated between them. Both time series exhibited dramatic declines from the 1970s to the 2000s: 78% for fishes entrapped by the power plants and 72% for the overall abundance of larval fishes in the CalCOFI time series. These trends, which predominantly affected taxa with cool-water affinities, were shared by fishes across nearshore and oceanic habitats, and included several trophic guilds and many unfished or only lightly fished taxa. These declines were significantly correlated with declining zooplankton displacement volumes across the California Current System (CCS), which suggests the influence of large-scale climatic and oceanographic drivers. Over the past 4 decades, changing environmental conditions appear to have produced more losers than winners in the CCS.

Miller, EF, McGowan JA.  2013.  Faunal shift in southern California's coastal fishes: A new assemblage and trophic structure takes hold. Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science. 127:29-36.   10.1016/j.ecss.2013.04.014   AbstractWebsite

Trends in coastal fish abundance indices were examined using a novel 39-year (1972-2010) time series recorded at southern California coastal power plants. Since 1972, the annual mean abundance index significantly declined (r(2) = 0.45, p < 0.001). The mean annual biomass index likewise declined but with a large interruption in 2005-2006 when an influx of large bodied, southern species increased the annual means. Ensemble mean abundance indices for fished and unfished species declined at similar rates. Two faunal shifts were identified, 1983-1984 and 1989-1990. The ensemble mean, annual entrapment rate abundance index during the current period (1990-2010) represents only 22% of that recorded during the first and most abundant period, 1972-1983. The mean biogeographic distribution of the assemblage was non-linear over time including a shift south during the 1980s through the 1990s before shifting north in recent years. The northern shift in recent years accompanied higher variability than previously recorded and was likely related to the overall low abundance. Since the early 1980s, the mean trophic level derived from abundance declined. The observed patterns were not correlated with commonly employed composite indices such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, but did show some sensitivity to changes in coastal seawater temperature and density over time. Timing of the observed faunal shifts in the fish assemblage was consistent with reported oceanographic shifts. These data suggested factors beyond fishing, such as oceanographic change, have substantially impacted the coastal fishes of southern California. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Williamson, M, McGowan JA.  2010.  The copepod communities of the north and south Pacific central gyres and the form of species-abundance distributions. Journal of Plankton Research. 32:273-283.   10.1093/plankt/fbp119   AbstractWebsite

Epiplanktonic copepods were sampled on 10 cruises in the Pacific central gyres, 7 in the north gyre and 3 in the south gyre, between 1964 and 1973. These gyres are the largest biomes, stable, ancient, down-welling, oligotrophic and with little temporal variation. The data from each cruise were standardized to numbers per 10(3) m(3); no data from the south gyre cruises has been published before. The structure of the communities was analysed with species-abundance curves and ordination. One hundred and eighty-two species were found in all, 118-158 per cruise, 73 in all cruises. Double-centred ordination of those 73 showed three distinct sets of cruises: south (Isaacs-Kidd net), north (Isaacs-Kidd net) and north (bongo net). The distance in species-space between the north and south gyres is the same but orthogonal to the distance between samples collected by the two nets! Sixteen species abundance distributions (SADs), from 10 cruises and 6 combinations of them, were used to test the hypotheses that such distributions are mildly platykurtic and increasingly left-skew with increasing sample size. All SADs were sigmoidal on rank abundance plots of the log abundance, and agreed with the hypotheses, clarifying the mathematical form. Such replicated, large sample, SADs are rare.

McGowan, JA, Scott DB, Mudie PJ, Rathburn AE.  2010.  Memorial to John S. Bradshaw (1928-2010). Journal of Foraminiferal Research. 40:209-209. AbstractWebsite
Kim, HJ, Miller AJ, McGowan J, Carter ML.  2009.  Coastal phytoplankton blooms in the Southern California Bight. Progress in Oceanography. 82:137-147.   10.1016/j.pocean.2009.05.002   AbstractWebsite

Surface chlorophyll (CHL) measured at the Scripps Pier in the Southern California Bight (SCB) for 18 years (1983-2000) reveals that the spring bloom occurs with irregular timing and intensity each year, unlike sea-surface temperature (SST), which is dominated by a regular seasonal cycle. In the 1990s, the spring bloom occurred earlier in the year and with larger amplitudes compared to those of the 1980s. Seasonal anomalies of the Pier CHL have no significant correlation with local winds, local SST, or upwelling index, which implies that classical coastal upwelling is not directly responsible for driving chlorophyll variations in nearshore SCB. The annual mean Pier CHL exhibits an increasing trend, whereas the Pier SST has no evident concomitant trend during the CHL observation period. The interannual variation of the Pier CHL is not correlated with tropical El Nino or La Nina conditions over the entire observing period. However, the Pier CHL was significantly influenced by El Nino/Southern Oscillation during the 1997/1998 El Nino and 1998/1999 La Nina transition period. The Pier CHL is highly coherent at long periods (3-7 years) with nearby offshore in situ surface CHL at the CalCOFI (California Cooperative Fisheries Investigations) station 93.27. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

McGowan, JA.  2004.  Sverdrup's Biology. Oceanography. 17:2:106–112.   10.5670/oceanog.2004.54   Abstract

In the mid-1930s there was much internal controversy and dissension at Scripps Institution of Oceanography about the goals of the institution and how they were to be carried out. Further, there was trouble with the administration at the parent institution, the University of California at Berkeley. The graduate council there found that "Scripps students were inadequately prepared" (Rainger, 2003). Some staff at Scripps felt that the director, T. Wayland Vaughan, emphasized laboratory over field work and had "shifted Scripps's mission from outdoors to indoors" and that the institution was becoming a "desk institution." It was said that, "Vaughan by de-emphasizing fieldwork had created personnel problems and raised questions about the status of fieldwork at Scripps." Vaughan, for his part, criticized the fieldwork at Scripps for not being "experimental" and he stressed the importance of what was then "the new methodology." He said, "As scientific research advances, emphasis changes. This is as true of Marine Biology as of any other field of investigation. In order to understand the relation of marine organisms to their environment the shift has been through the medium of experiment and physiology." -

McGowan, JA, Bograd SJ, Lynn RJ, Miller AJ.  2003.  The biological response to the 1977 regime shift in the California Current. Deep-Sea Research Part Ii-Topical Studies in Oceanography. 50:2567-2582.   10.1016/s0967-0645(03)00135-8   AbstractWebsite

Among the least understood interactions between physics and biology in the oceans are those that take place on the decadal scale. But this temporal scale is important because some of the greatest ecological events take place on this time scale. More than 50 years of measurement in the California Current System have revealed significant ecosystem changes, including a large, decadal decline in zooplankton biomass, along with a rise in upper-ocean temperature. The temperature change was a relatively abrupt shift around 1976-77, concurrent with other basin-wide changes associated with an intensification of the Aleutian Low-pressure system. This intensification generates temperature anomalies in the ocean by altering the patterns of net surface-heat fluxes, turbulent mixing, and horizontal transport. Changes in the mean abundance of zooplankton in the southern California Current have been attributed to variations in the strength of coastal upwelling, variations in the horizontal transport of nutrient-rich water from the north, or increased stratification due to warming, all of which could be affected by fluctuations in the Aleutian Low. Here we show that a deepening of the thermocline accompanied the warming and increased the stratification of the water column, leading to a decrease in the supply of plant nutrients to the upper layers. This is the most likely mechanism for the observed plankton decline, and subsequent ecosystem changes. A global change in upper-ocean heat content, accompanied by an increase in stratification and mixed-layer deepening relative to the critical depth for net production, could lead to a widespread decline in plankton abundance. (C) 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

McGowan, JA.  1999.  A biological WOCE. Oceanography. 12:33-34. Abstract

Pattern recognition is the very basis on which we attempt to understand the world.

McGowan, JA, Cayan DR, Dorman LM.  1998.  Climate-ocean variability and ecosystem response in the northeast Pacific. Science. 281:210-217.   10.1126/science.281.5374.210   AbstractWebsite

The role of climatic variation in regulating marine populations and communities is not well understood. To improve our knowledge, the sign, amplitude, and frequency of climatic and biotic variations should be compared as a necessary first step. it is shown that there have been large interannual and interdecadal sea-surface temperature changes off the West Coast of North America during the past 80 years. Interannual anomalies appear and disappear rather suddenly and synchronously along the entire coastline. The frequency of warm events has increased since 1977. Although extensive, serial, biological observations are often incomplete, it is clear that climate-ocean variations have disturbed and changed our coastal ecosystems.

Veit, RR, McGowan JA, Ainley DG, Wahls TR, Pyle P.  1997.  Apex marine predator declines ninety percent in association with changing oceanic climate. Global Change Biology. 3:23-28.   10.1046/j.1365-2486.1997.d01-130.x   AbstractWebsite

Three time series of pelagic bird abundance collected in disparate portions of the California Current reveal a 90% decline in Sooty Shearwater (Puffinus griseus) abundance between 1987 and 1994. This decline is negatively correlated with a concurrent rise in sea-surface temperatures; Sooty Shearwaters have declined while sea temperatures have risen. There is a nine-month lag in the response by shearwaters to changing temperatures. The geographical scale of our study demonstrates that the decline of Sooty Shearwaters is not a localized phenomenon, nor can it be ascribed to a short-term distributional shift. The Sooty Shearwater is the numerically dominant species of the California Current System (CCS) in summer (austral winter), with an estimated population in the late 1970s of 5 million individuals. If the observed warming of the waters of the California Current System is an irreversible manifestation of a changing global climate, then the impact upon Sooty Shearwater populations seems likely to be profound.

McGowan, JA, Chelton DB, Conversi A.  1996.  Plankton patterns, climate, and change in the California Current. California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations Reports. 37:45-68. AbstractWebsite
Veit, RR, Pyle P, McGowan JA.  1996.  Ocean warming and long-term change in pelagic bird abundance within the California current system. Marine Ecology-Progress Series. 139:11-18.   10.3354/meps139011   AbstractWebsite

As a result of repeated sampling of pelagic bird abundance over 3 x 10(5) km(2) of open ocean 4 times a year for 8 yr, we report that seabird abundance within the California Current system has declined by 40% over the period 1987 to 1994. This decline has accompanied a concurrent, long-term increase in sea surface temperature. The decline in overall bird abundance is largely, but not entirely, a consequence of the 90% decline of sooty shearwaters Puffinus griseus, the numerically dominant species of the California Current. Seabirds of the offshore waters we sampled showed a different pattern from seabirds of the shelf and slope waters. Leach's storm-petrels Oceanodroma leucorhoa, the commonest species offshore, significantly increased during 1987 to 1994, while sooty shearwaters and other inshore species declined. Thus the dearest pattern that emerges from our data is one of gradual but persistent changes in abundance that transpire at time scales longer than 1 yr. Nevertheless, we did find evidence of change at shorter time scales (weeks and months) that may relate to the El Nino episode of 1992 to 1993: Pronounced positive anomalies of abundance of brown pelicans Pelecanus occidentalis and Heerman's gulls Larus heermani in fall 1991, and black Oceanodroma melania and least O. microsoma storm-petrels in late summer 1992, likely reflect northward dispersal following reproductive failure in the Gulf of California.

McGowan, John A..  1996.  Introduction to Marine Biologist and Environmentalist : Pycnogonids, Progress, and Preserving Bays, Salmon, and Other Living Things. ( Hedgpeth JW, Lage A, Eds.).: Regional Oral History Office, The Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley Abstract
Hayward, TL, Cayan DR, Franks PJS, Lynn RJ, Mantyla AW, McGowan JA, Smith PE, Schwing FB, Venrick EL.  1995.  The state of the California current in 1994-1995: A period of transition. California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations Reports. 36:19-39. AbstractWebsite

This report is a summary and preliminary analysis of recent observations of oceanographic and biological structure of the California Current region, with emphasis on atmospheric pressure and wind fields, ocean circulation pattern and hydrographic structure, and upper-ocean plankton distributions. There was a strong transition in atmospheric circulation and sea-surface temperature between the fall of 1994 and winter/spring 1995. A deep low pressure replaced high pressure over the eastern North Pacific, and this resulted in frequent and intense winter storms, During 1994, the California Current returned to a more typical circulation pattern, following El Nino conditions during 1992 and 1993. The cruise mean values of chlorophyll and primary production fit into the scatter of values observed during the prior decade, while macrozooplankton biomass continued its trend of being low both in terms of the last decade and the 45-year record, Winter and spring of 1995 were marked by an unusually strong red tide event in the coastal region of southern California, and high chlorophyll and primary production in the CalCOFI study region.

McGowan, J.  1995.  Hot and the North Pacific Gyre. Nature. 378:21-22.   10.1038/378021b0   AbstractWebsite
Roemmich, D, McGowan J.  1995.  Climatic warming and the decline of zooplankton in the California Current. Science. 267:1324-1326.   10.1126/science.267.5202.1324   AbstractWebsite

Since 1951, the biomass of macrozooplankton in waters off southern California has decreased by 80 percent. During the same period, the surface layer warmed-by more than 1.5 degrees C in some places-and the temperature difference across the thermocline increased. Increased stratification resulted in less lifting of the thermocline by wind-driven upwelling. A shallower source of upwelled waters provided less inorganic nutrient for new biological production and hence supported a smaller zooplankton population. Continued warming could lead to further decline of zooplankton.

McGowan, JA.  1995.  Temporal change in marine ecosystems. Natural climate variability on decade-to-century time scales. ( Committee N(US), Ed.).:555-571., Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press Abstract
Conversi, A, McGowan JA.  1994.  Natural Versus Human-Caused Variability of Water Clarity in the Southern California Bight. Limnology and Oceanography. 39:632-648. AbstractWebsite

This paper examines the spatial and temporal variability of two optical properties (percent transmissivity and Secchi disk depth) measured near three areas in the Southern California Bight in which strong human influence, in the form of sewage discharge, is present. Fifteen years of data collected monthly at test and control stations were examined by time-series and other statistical analyses. By comparing the variability of these properties between the three areas (50-200 km apart) and within areas with the local discharges, we have attempted to distinguish anthropogenically induced variability (variations associated with the local discharges) from natural variability (bightwide fluctuations). Although our results do not provide a totally unambiguous picture, they do indicate that most of the variability of these water-column properties is driven by bightwide natural phenomena.

Wiebe, PH, Moran DD, Knox R, Miller CB, McGowan JA.  1993.  Long-Range Needs for Deep-Sea Platforms - the Deep-Sea Observatory Concept. Marine Technology Society Journal. 27:24-31. AbstractWebsite

The international community of oceanographers and ocean engineers has faced an historical deficiency in long time-series data for all oceanographic and environmental variables in all sea states. Most measurements have been confined to short time-series data collection in the deep ocean during calm to moderate sea conditions by deployment of conventional oceanographic research ships. To a lesser extent, longer time-series have been obtained from moored or drifting autonomous instruments measuring selected (usually physical or optical) variables. A solution to this deficiency is to deploy a complete oceanographic deep-sea observatory designed into a large mobile ocean platform with small water-plane area displacement. This deep-sea observatory would be maintained at sea for periods in excess of five years with logistics and scientific resupply accomplished through the technologies developed during the last decade by the offshore ocean industry. Platforms of this design would provide fundamental information about the structure and dynamics of open-ocean ecosystems far from land and would enable greatly improved ground-truth information about the state of the ocean environment.

Haury, LR, Venrick EL, Fey CL, McGowan JA, Niiler PP.  1993.  The Ensenada Front - July 1985. California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations Reports. 34:69-88. AbstractWebsite

The surface signature of the relatively cool, fresh, eutrophic waters of the southeastward-flowing California Current end abruptly off northern Baja California, Mexico, in a persistent, interannually variable feature we call the Ensenada Front. A detailed study of the front in July 1985 showed that it comprised a complex set of hows, some of which fed into eddies and others that may have been subducting under the warm, oligotrophic waters to the south. The frontal region was characterized by low gradients in physical, chemical, and biological properties. The nutricline was about 35 m deep north of the front and 100 m deep south of it. Integrated primary production to the north was three times that to the south; productivity was not enhanced in the jets. Integrated euphotic-zone chlorophyll showed no significant change across the front; an area northeast of the front with a strong, deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM) underlying a pool of warm, low-chlorophyll water had the highest integrated chlorophyll in the study region. Chlorophyll concentrations increased in the high shear zones between strong jets. The highest values of surface chlorophyll and primary production tended to correspond to regions of lowest geopotential anomaly, not to regions of low temperatures and positive divergence. Wet displacement volumes of zooplankton in the upper 210 m were three times higher to the north of the front, and in the upper 100 m were four times higher; the change occurred relatively abruptly over a distance of about 15 km. Zooplankton biomass varied directly with integrated chlorophyll in north-south sections across the southeast-trending front, but varied inversely with chlorophyll on a west-east section that ended in the warm pool with the strong DCM. Fish eggs and larvae were less abundant in the waters north of the front.

Fargion, GS, McGowan JA, Stewart RH.  1993.  Seasonality of Chlorophyll Concentrations in the California Current - a Comparison of 2 Methods. California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations Reports. 34:35-50. AbstractWebsite

We have compared estimates of seasonal variations in chlorophyll concentrations in the California Current as derived from a large series of in situ, water-column, measures and from the Coastal Zone Color Scanner-West Coast Time Series (WCTS) in both original and corrected forms. We find substantial differences between the two methods, satellite and in situ. The original WCTS showed winter to be the peak season for pigment concentration everywhere, but the in situ data did not. A previous study of the corrected WCTS data found ''a strong seasonal cycle with a spring summer maximum,'' but the in situ data contained no convincing evidence for a ''strong'' cycle when all of the data were examined. Some individual years (e.g., 1984) do have dear spring maxima, particularly very near shore, but most do not. There are extensive interannual variations. The overall relation between surface in situ (or 0-20 m) pigment concentrations and integrated, in situ water-column (0-150 m) concentrations is very uncertain in terms of mean concentrations per unit volume, spatial heterogeneity, and temporal change.

McGowan, JA.  1993.  Pelagic Diversity Patterns. Species diversity in ecological communities : historical and geographical perspectives. ( Ricklefs RE, Schluter D, Eds.).:203-214., Chicago: University of Chicago Press Abstract
Conversi, A, McGowan JA.  1992.  Variability of Water Column Transparency, Volume Flow and Suspended Solids Near San Diego Sewage Outfall (California): 15 Years of Data. Chemistry and Ecology. 6:133-147.: Taylor & Francis   10.1080/02757549208035268   AbstractWebsite

Abstract The spatial and temporal variability of transparency measured for 15 years at 7 stations near the San Diego sewage outfall has been investigated and compared to the temporal variability of sewage suspended solid discharge and flow rate. the purpose of the time-series analyses was to distinguish natural from human (sewage discharge) causes of temporal changes in transparency. the results show that: 1) variations in transparency are highly correlated over the entire area, but there is a gradient in means and variability in the direction perpendicular to the coast; 2) there are no long term trends for increase or decrease in the water clarity at any of the stations; 3) most of the variance of transparency is contained in the seasonal frequency band; 4) over the same time period sewage discharge has significantly increased and suspended solids decreased; 5) most of the variance of these human-caused properties is in the interannual frequency band; (6) there is no correlation at any time-lag between water clarity and suspended solid discharge or flow. These results lead to the conclusion that these anthropogenic properties are not affecting transparency, while natural factors such as seasonality and distance from coast do.The spatial and temporal variability of transparency measured for 15 years at 7 stations near the San Diego sewage outfall has been investigated and compared to the temporal variability of sewage suspended solid discharge and flow rate. the purpose of the time-series analyses was to distinguish natural from human (sewage discharge) causes of temporal changes in transparency. the results show that: 1) variations in transparency are highly correlated over the entire area, but there is a gradient in means and variability in the direction perpendicular to the coast; 2) there are no long term trends for increase or decrease in the water clarity at any of the stations; 3) most of the variance of transparency is contained in the seasonal frequency band; 4) over the same time period sewage discharge has significantly increased and suspended solids decreased; 5) most of the variance of these human-caused properties is in the interannual frequency band; (6) there is no correlation at any time-lag between water clarity and suspended solid discharge or flow. These results lead to the conclusion that these anthropogenic properties are not affecting transparency, while natural factors such as seasonality and distance from coast do.

Haury, L, McGowan JA, Brinton E, Walker P, Fey C, Townsend A.  1990.  Distribution of zooplankton biomass/species and fish eggs/larvae across the Ensenada front in 1985. EOS. 71:147. Abstract
McGowan, JA.  1990.  Ecosystem Structure of the California Current. EOS. 71:121. Abstract
McGowan, JA.  1990.  Species dominance - diversity patterns in ocean communities. The Earth in transition : patterns and processes of biotic impoverishment. ( Woodwell GM, Ed.).:395-421., Cambridge England ; New York: Cambridge University Press Abstract
McGowan, JA.  1989.  The biological oceanography of the California current system. AAAS Annual Meeting. , San Francisco Abstract
McGowan, JA.  1989.  Pelagic ecology and Pacific climate. Aspects of climate variability in the Pacific and the western Americas. ( Peterson DH, Union A, Eds.).:141-150., Washington, DC, U.S.A.: American Geophysical Union Abstract
Venrick, EL, McGowan JA, Cayan DR, Hayward TL.  1987.  Climate and chlorophyll-a: long-term trends in the central North Pacific Ocean. Science. 238:70-72.   10.1126/science.238.4823.70   AbstractWebsite

Since 1968 a significant increase in total chlorophyll a in the water column during the summer in the central North Pacific Ocean has been observed. A concomitant increase in winter winds and a decrease in sea surface temperature suggest that long-period fluctuations in atmospheric characteristics have changed the carrying capacity of the central Pacific epipelagic ecosystem.

Wiebe, P, Miller C, McGowan JA, Knox R.  1987.  Long time series study of oceanic ecosystems. EOS. 68:1178-1190. Abstract
Pelaez, J, McGowan JA.  1986.  Phytoplankton Pigment Patterns in the California Current as Determined by Satellite. Limnology and Oceanography. 31:927-950. AbstractWebsite
McGowan, JA.  1986.  The biogeography of pelagic ecosystems. Pelagic biogeography : proceedings of an international conference, UNESCO technical papers in Marine Science No. 49. ( Pierrot-Bults AC, Ed.).:191-200., Paris: Unesco Abstract
McGowan, JA, Brinton E.  1985.  Johnson,Martin,W. 1893-1984 - in Memoriam. Bulletin of Marine Science. 37:407-410. AbstractWebsite
McGowan, JA, Walker PW.  1985.  Dominance and Diversity Maintenance in an Oceanic Ecosystem. Ecological Monographs. 55:103-118.   10.2307/1942527   AbstractWebsite
McGowan, JA.  1985.  El Niño 1983 in the Southern California bight. El Niño North : Niño effects in the Eastern Subarctic Pacific Ocean. ( Wooster WS, Fluharty DL, Eds.).:166-184., Seattle: Washington Sea Grant Program, University of Washington Abstract
McGowan, JA.  1984.  The California El-Nino, 1983. Oceanus. 27:48-51. AbstractWebsite
Hayward, TL, Venrick EL, McGowan JA.  1983.  Environmental Heterogeneity and Plankton Community Structure in the Central North Pacific. Journal of Marine Research. 41:711-729. AbstractWebsite
Chelton, DB, Bernal PA, McGowan JA.  1982.  Large-Scale Interannual Physical and Biological Interaction in the California Current. Journal of Marine Research. 40:1095-1125. AbstractWebsite
Enright, JT, Newman WA, Hessler RR, McGowan JA.  1981.  Deep-Ocean Hydrothermal Vent Communities. Nature. 289:219-221.   10.1038/289219a0   AbstractWebsite
Hayward, TL, McGowan JA.  1981.  The Shallow Salinity Minimum and Variance Maximum in the Central North Pacific. Deep-Sea Research Part a-Oceanographic Research Papers. 28:1131-1146.   10.1016/0198-0149(81)90051-0   AbstractWebsite
Hayward, TL, McGowan JA.  1979.  Pattern and Structure in an Oceanic Zooplankton Community. American Zoologist. 19:1045-1055. AbstractWebsite
McGowan, JA, Walker PW.  1979.  Structure in the Copepod Community of the North Pacific Central Gyre. Ecological Monographs. 49:195-226.   10.2307/1942513   AbstractWebsite
McGowan, JA, Hayward TL.  1978.  Mixing and Oceanic Productivity. Deep-Sea Research. 25:771-793.   10.1016/0146-6291(78)90023-1   AbstractWebsite
Venrick, EL, McGowan JA, Mantyla AW.  1973.  Deep Maxima of Photosynthetic Chlorophyll in Pacific Ocean. Fishery Bulletin. 71:41-52. AbstractWebsite
Williams, PM, McGowan JA, Stuiver M.  1970.  Bomb C-14 in Deep Sea Organisms. Nature. 227:375-&.   10.1038/227375a0   AbstractWebsite
McGowan, JA, Fraundor.Vj.  1966.  Relationship between Size of Net Used and Estimates of Zooplankton Diversity. Limnology and Oceanography. 11:456-&. AbstractWebsite
McGowan, JA.  1965.  Plankton and Productivity in Oceans. Quarterly Review of Biology. 40:79-&.   10.1086/404457   AbstractWebsite
McGowan, JA, Fraundorf VJ.  1964.  A Modified Heavy Fraction Zooplankton Sorter. Limnology and Oceanography. 9:152-155. AbstractWebsite
Fager, EW, McGowan JA.  1963.  Zooplankton species groups in North Pacific. Science. 140:453-&.   10.1126/science.140.3566.453   AbstractWebsite