Publications

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2016
Musgrave, RC, MacKinnon JA, Pinkel R, Waterhouse AF, Nash J.  2016.  Tidally driven processes leading to near-field turbulence in a channel at the crest of the Mendocino Escarpment*. Journal of Physical Oceanography. 46:1137-1155.   10.1175/jpo-d-15-0021.1   AbstractWebsite

In situ observations of tidally driven turbulence were obtained in a small channel that transects the crest of the Mendocino Ridge, a site of mixed (diurnal and semidiurnal) tides. Diurnal tides are subinertial at this latitude, and once per day a trapped tide leads to large flows through the channel giving rise to tidal excursion lengths comparable to the width of the ridge crest. During these times, energetic turbulence is observed in the channel, with overturns spanning almost half of the full water depth. A high-resolution, nonhydrostatic, 2.5-dimensional simulation is used to interpret the observations in terms of the advection of a breaking tidal lee wave that extends from the ridge crest to the surface and the subsequent development of a hydraulic jump on the flanks of the ridge. Modeled dissipation rates show that turbulence is strongest on the flanks of the ridge and that local dissipation accounts for 28% of the energy converted from the barotropic tide into baroclinic motion.

2014
Buijsman, MC, Klymak JM, Legg S, Alford MH, Farmer D, MacKinnon JA, Nash JD, Park JH, Pickering A, Simmons H.  2014.  Three-dimensional double-ridge internal tide resonance in Luzon Strait. Journal of Physical Oceanography. 44:850-869.   10.1175/jpo-d-13-024.1   AbstractWebsite

The three-dimensional (3D) double-ridge internal tide interference in the Luzon Strait in the South China Sea is examined by comparing 3D and two-dimensional (2D) realistic simulations. Both the 3D simulations and observations indicate the presence of 3D first-mode (semi)diurnal standing waves in the 3.6-km-deep trench in the strait. As in an earlier 2D study, barotropic-to-baroclinic energy conversion, flux divergence, and dissipation are greatly enhanced when semidiurnal tides dominate relative to periods dominated by diurnal tides. The resonance in the 3D simulation is several times stronger than in the 2D simulations for the central strait. Idealized experiments indicate that, in addition to ridge height, the resonance is only a function of separation distance and not of the along-ridge length; that is, the enhanced resonance in 3D is not caused by 3D standing waves or basin modes. Instead, the difference in resonance between the 2D and 3D simulations is attributed to the topographic blocking of the barotropic flow by the 3D ridges, affecting wave generation, and a more constructive phasing between the remotely generated internal waves, arriving under oblique angles, and the barotropic tide. Most of the resonance occurs for the first mode. The contribution of the higher modes is reduced because of 3D radiation, multiple generation sites, scattering, and a rapid decay in amplitude away from the ridge.

2013
MacKinnon, J, St Laurent L, Naveira Garabato AC.  2013.  Diapycnal Mixing Processes in the Ocean Interior. Ocean Circulation and Climate: A 21st Century Perspective. 103( Siedler G, Griffies SM, Gould J, Church JA, Eds.).:159-183.: Academic Press   10.1016/B978-0-12-391851-2.00007-6   Abstract

Diapycnal mixing in the ocean interior is driven by a wide range of processes, each with distinct governing physics and unique global geography. Here we review the primary processes responsible for turbulent mixing in the ocean interior, with an emphasis on active work from the past decade. We conclude with a discussion of global patterns of mixing and their importance for regional and large-scale modeling accuracy.