Publications

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2017
Zhang, WX, Lou YD, Haase JS, Zhang R, Zheng G, Huang JF, Shi C, Liu JN.  2017.  The Use of Ground-Based GPS Precipitable Water Measurements over China to Assess Radiosonde and ERA-Interim Moisture Trends and Errors from 1999 to 2015. Journal of Climate. 30:7643-7667.   10.1175/jcli-d-16-0591.1   AbstractWebsite

Global positioning system (GPS) data from over 260 ground-based permanent stations in China covering the period from 1 March 1999 to 30 April 2015 were used to estimate precipitable water (PW) above each site with an accuracy of about 0.75 mm. Four types of radiosondes (referred to as GZZ2, GTS1, GTS1-1, and GTS1-2) were used in China during this period. Instrumentation type changes in radiosonde records were identified by comparing PW calculated from GPS and radiosonde data. Systematic errors in different radiosonde types introduced significant biases to the estimated PW trends at stations where more than one radiosonde type was used. Estimating PW trends from reanalysis products (ERA-Interim), which assimilate the unadjusted radiosonde humidity data, resulted in an artificial downward PW trend at almost all stations in China. The statistically significant GPS PW trends are predominantly positive, consistent in sign with the increase in moisture expected from the Clausius-Clapeyron relation due to a global temperature increase. The standard deviations of the differences between ERA-Interim and GPS PW in the summer were 3 times larger than the observational error of GPS PW, suggesting that potentially significant improvements to the reanalysis could be achieved by assimilating denser GPS PW observations over China. This work, based on an entirely independent GPS PW dataset, confirms previously reported significant differences in radiosonde PW trends when using corrected data. Furthermore, the dense geographical coverage of the all-weather GPS PW observations, especially in remote areas in western China, provides a valuable resource for calibrating regional trends in reanalysis products.

2016
Saunders, JK, Goldberg DE, Haase JS, Bock Y, Offield DG, Melgar D, Restrepo J, Fleischman RB, Nema A, Geng JH, Walls C, Mann D, Mattioli GS.  2016.  Seismogeodesy using GPS and low-cost MEMS accelerometers: Perspectives for earthquake early warning and rapid response. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America. 106:2469-2489.   10.1785/0120160062   AbstractWebsite

The seismogeodetic method computes accurate displacement and velocity waveforms by optimally extracting high-frequency information from strong-motion accelerometers and low-frequency information from collocated Global Positioning System (GPS) instruments. These broadband observations retain the permanent (static) displacement, are immune to clipping and magnitude saturation for large earthquakes, and are sensitive enough to record P-wave arrivals. These characteristics make seismogeodesy suitable for real-time applications such as earthquake early warning. The Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO) has developed an inexpensive microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) accelerometer package to upgrade established GPS stations. We compare the performance of our MEMS accelerometer with an observatory-grade accelerometer using an experiment at the University of California San Diego Large High-Performance Outdoor Shake Table. We show that the two types of accelerometers agree in frequency ranges of seismological and engineering interest and produce equivalent seismogeodetic estimates of displacement and velocity. To date, 27 SIO MEMS packages have been installed at GPS monitoring stations in southern California and the San Francisco Bay area and have recorded four earthquakes (M4.2, M4.1, and two of M4.0). The P-wave arrivals are distinguishable in the seismogeodetic observations at distances of up to similar to 25 km away but not in the GPS-only displacements. There is no significant permanent deformation for these small events. This study demonstrates the lower limit of detectability and that seismogeodetic waveforms can also be a reliable early confirmation that an event is not large or hazardous. It also raises the possibility of rapid magnitude estimation through scaling relationships.

Wang, KN, Garrison JL, Acikoz U, Haase JS, Murphy BJ, Muradyan P, Lulich T.  2016.  Open-loop tracking of rising and setting GPS radio-occultation signals from an airborne platform: Signal model and error analysis. Ieee Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing. 54:3967-3984.   10.1109/tgrs.2016.2532346   AbstractWebsite

Global Positioning System (GPS) radio-occultation (RO) is an atmospheric sounding technique utilizing the received GPS signal through the stratified atmosphere to measure refractivity, which provides information on temperature and humidity. The GPS-RO technique is now operational on several Low Earth Orbiting (LEO) satellites, which cannot provide high temporal and spatial resolution soundings necessary to observe localized transient events, such as tropical storms. An airborne RO (ARO) system has thus been developed for localized GPS-RO campaigns. RO signals in the lower troposphere are adversely affected by rapid phase accelerations and severe signal power fading. These signal dynamics often cause the phase-locked loop in conventional GPS survey receivers to lose lock in the lower troposphere, and the open-loop (OL) tracking in postprocessing is used to overcome this problem. OL tracking also allows robust processing of rising GPS signals, approximately doubling the number of observed occultations. An approach for "backward" OL tracking was developed, in which the correlations are computed sequentially in reverse time so that the signal can be acquired and tracked at high elevations for rising occultations. Ultimately, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) limits the depth of tracking in the atmosphere. We have developed a model relating the SNR to the variance in the residual phase of the observed signal produced from OL tracking. In this paper, we demonstrate the applicability of the phase variance model to airborne data. We then apply this model to set a threshold on refractivity retrieval based upon the cumulative unwrapping error bias to determine the altitude limit for reliable signal tracking. We also show consistency between the ARO SNR and collocated COSMIC satellite observations and use these results to evaluate the antenna requirements for an improved ARO system.

2015
Murphy, BJ, Haase JS, Muradyan P, Garrison JL, Wang KN.  2015.  Airborne GPS radio occultation refractivity profiles observed in tropical storm environments. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres. 120:1690-1709.   10.1002/2014jd022931   AbstractWebsite

Airborne GPS radio occultation (ARO) data have been collected during the 2010 PRE-Depression Investigation of Cloud systems in the Tropics (PREDICT) experiment. GPS signals received by the airborne Global Navigation Satellite System Instrument System for Multistatic and Occultation Sensing (GISMOS) are used to retrieve vertical profiles of refractivity in the neutral atmosphere. The system includes a conventional geodetic GPS receiver component for straightforward validation of the analysis method in the middle to upper troposphere, and a high-sample rate (10 MHz) GPS recorder for postprocessing complex signals that probe the lower troposphere. The results from the geodetic receivers are presented here. The retrieved ARO profiles consistently agree within similar to 2% of refractivity profiles calculated from the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasting model Interim reanalyses as well as from nearby dropsondes and radiosondes. Changes in refractivity obtained from ARO data over the 5days leading to the genesis of tropical storm Karl are consistent with moistening in the vicinity of the storm center. An open-loop tracking method was implemented in a test case to analyze GPS signals from the GISMOS 10 MHz recording system for comparison with geodetic receiver data. The open-loop mode successfully tracked similar to 2 km deeper into the troposphere than the conventional receiver and can also track rising occultations, illustrating the benefit from the high-rate recording system. Accurate refractivity retrievals are an important first step toward the future goal of assimilating moisture profiles to improve forecasting of developing storms using this new GPS occultation technique.

2013
Geng, JH, Bock Y, Melgar D, Crowell BW, Haase JS.  2013.  A new seismogeodetic approach applied to GPS and accelerometer observations of the 2012 Brawley seismic swarm: Implications for earthquake early warning. Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems. 14:2124-2142.   10.1002/ggge.20144   AbstractWebsite

The 26 August 2012 Brawley seismic swarm of hundreds of events ranging from M1.4 to M5.5 in the Salton Trough, California provides a unique data set to investigate a new seismogeodetic approach that combines Global Positioning System (GPS) and accelerometer observations to estimate displacement and velocity waveforms. First in simulated real-time mode, we analyzed 1-5 Hz GPS data collected by 17 stations fully encircling the swarm zone at near-source distances up to about 40km using precise point positioning with ambiguity resolution (PPP-AR). We used a reference network of North American GPS stations well outside the region of deformation to estimate fractional-cycle biases and satellite clock parameters, which were then combined with ultrarapid orbits from the International GNSS Service to estimate positions during the Brawley seismic swarm. Next, we estimated seismogeodetic displacements and velocities from GPS phase and pseudorange observations and 100-200 Hz accelerations collected at three pairs of GPS and seismic stations in close proximity using a new tightly coupled Kalman filter approach as an extension of the PPP-AR process. We can clearly discern body waves in the velocity waveforms, including P-wave arrivals not detectable with the GPS-only approach for earthquake magnitudes as low as M-w 4.6 and significant static offsets for magnitudes as low as M-w 5.4. Our study shows that GPS networks upgraded with strong motion accelerometers can provide new information for improved understanding of the earthquake rupture process and be of critical value in creating a robust early warning system for any earthquake of societal significance.

2008
Xie, FQ, Haase JS, Syndergaard S.  2008.  Profiling the Atmosphere Using the Airborne GPS Radio Occultation Technique: A Sensitivity Study. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing. 46:3424-3435.   <u>10.1109/tgrs.2008.2004713</u>   AbstractWebsite

Global Positioning System (GPS) radio occultation (RO) sounding, with its high vertical resolution temperature and humidity profiling capability, is revolutionizing atmospheric science, particularly through assimilation in numerical weather prediction (NWP) models. Currently, the observations are derived from GPS receivers onboard low Earth orbiting satellites. However, with the current number of satellites, it is difficult to provide dense sounding measurements in a specific region within a limited time period. With a GPS receiver onboard an airplane, the GPS RO technique offers such an opportunity while retaining the high vertical resolution sounding capability. The GNSS Instrument System for Multistatic and Occultation Sensing is currently under development for the National Science Foundation's High-performance Instrumented Airborne Platform for Environmental Research (HIAPER) aircraft. This paper presents a sensitivity analysis of the airborne occultation technique that will be used for the HIAPER system. The results demonstrate an anticipated overall accuracy of better than 0.5% for the retrieved refractivity from the surface to about 1 km below the airplane, where the expected airplane velocity errors of up to 5 mm/s limit the accuracy. The effects on the retrievals due to horizontal variations in atmospheric refractivity are significant, and retrieval errors may reach several percent inside frontal systems when the front is perpendicular to the ray paths and within 200 km of the tangent point. In general, the airborne GPS RO system provides a promising new data source for NWP and targeted observational studies.

2004
Vedel, H, Huang XY, Haase JS, Ge M, Calais E.  2004.  Impact of GPS Zenith Tropospheric Delay data on precipitation forecasts in Mediterranean France and Spain. Geophysical Research Letters. 31   L0210210.1029/2003gl017715   AbstractWebsite

[1] Forecasting precipitation in the western Mediterranean is difficult because of the interactions among dynamical forcing, orographic lifting and moisture advection from the warm Mediterranean Sea. Torrential rainfall events are not uncommon, especially during the autumn. This type of event motivated an effort to improve precipitation forecasting by incorporating additional information on the initial state of the humidity field from Global Positioning System measurements of refractive delay. In this study we process data from a network of sites in Western Europe and assimilate the data over a two week period into the HIRLAM numerical weather prediction model. The overall impact for the two week period is neutral, however, for a severe rain event taking place during that period, the forecasts show improved skill when including GPS data. The work implies that the GPS data have good potential for influencing numerical models in rapidly developing, high moisture flux situations.

2003
Haase, JS, Ge MR, Vedel H, Calais E.  2003.  Accuracy and variability of GPS tropospheric delay measurements of water vapor in the western Mediterranean. Journal of Applied Meteorology. 42:1547-1568. AbstractWebsite

As a preliminary step for assessing the impact of global positioning system (GPS) refractive delay data in numerical weather prediction (NWP) models, the GPS zenith tropospheric delays (ZTDs) are analyzed from 51 permanent GPS sites in the western Mediterranean. The objectives are to estimate the error statistics necessary for future assimilation of GPS ZTD data in numerical models and to investigate the variability of the data in this area. The time series, which were derived continuously from November 1998 to June 2001, are compared with independent equivalent values derived from radiosonde profiles and the High-Resolution Limited-Area Model (HIRLAM) NWP model. Based on over two years of data, the difference between radiosonde and GPS ZTD has a standard deviation of 12 mm of delay and a bias of 7 mm of delay. Some sites have biases as high as 14 mm of delay. The bimodal distribution of residuals, with a higher bias for daytime launches, indicates these biases may be due to radiosonde day-night measurement biases. The biases between the GPS ZTD and HIRLAM estimates are smaller, but the 18-mm ZTD standard deviation is significantly greater. The standard deviation of the residuals depends strongly on the amount of humidity, which produces an annual signal because of the much higher variability of water vapor in the summer months. The better agreement with radiosonde data than HIRLAM estimates indicates that the NWP models will benefit from the additional information provided by GPS. The long-term differences between the observational data sources require further study before GPS-derived data become useful for climate studies.

2002
Vey, S, Calais E, Llubes M, Florsch N, Woppelmann G, Hinderer J, Amalviet M, Lalancette MF, Simon B, Duquenne F, Haase JS.  2002.  GPS measurements of ocean loading and its impact on zenith tropospheric delay estimates: a case study in Brittany, France. Journal of Geodesy. 76:419-427.   10.1007/s00190-002-0272-7   AbstractWebsite

The results from a global positioning system (GPS) experiment carried out in Brittany, France, in October 1999, aimed at measuring crustal displacements caused by ocean loading and quantifying their effects on GPS-derived tropospheric delay estimates, are presented. The loading effect in the vertical and horizontal position time series is identified, however with significant disagreement in amplitude compared to ocean loading model predictions. It is shown that these amplitude misfits result from spatial tropospheric heterogeneities not accounted for in the data processing. The effect of ocean loading on GPS-derived zenith total delay (ZTD) estimates is investigated and a scaling factor of 4.4 between ZTD and station height for a 10degrees elevation cutoff angle is found (i.e. a 4.4-cm station height error would map into a 1-cm ZTD error). Consequently. unmodeled ocean loading effects map into significant errors in ZTD estimates and ocean loading modeling must be properly implemented when estimating ZTD parameters from GRS data for meteorological applications. Ocean loading effects Must be known with an accuracy of better than 3 cm in order to meet the accuracy requirements of meteorological and climatological applications of GPS-derived precipitable water vapor.

Healy, SB, Haase J, Lesne O.  2002.  Abel transform inversion of radio occultation measurements made with a receiver inside the Earth's atmosphere. Annales Geophysicae. 20:1253-1256. AbstractWebsite

Radio occultation measurements made with a receiver inside the Earth's atmosphere can be inverted, assuming local spherical symmetry, with an Abel transform to provide an estimate of the atmospheric refractive index profile. The measurement geometry is closely related to problems encountered when inverting seismic time-travel data and solar occultation measurements, where the Abel solution is well known. The method requires measuring both rays that originate from above and below the local horizon of the receiver. The Abel transform operates on a profile of "partial bending angles" found by subtracting the positive elevation measurement from the negative elevation value with the same impact parameter. In principle, the refractive index profile can be derived from measurements with a single frequency GPS receiver because the ionospheric bending is removed when the partial bending angle is evaluated.

Ge, MR, Calais E, Haase J.  2002.  Sensitivity of zenith total delay accuracy to GPS orbit errors and implications for near-real-time GPS meteorology. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres. 107   431510.1029/2001jd001095   AbstractWebsite

[1] Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements have been demonstrated to provide precipitable water vapor (PWV) estimates with a level of accuracy that is comparable to that of radiosondes and microwave radiometers. GPS measurements therefore have the potential to become a significant source of data for operational weather forecasting, provided that PWV (or the intermediate zenith total delay (ZTD)) can be made available in near real-time with a minimum accuracy degradation. Despite the recent decrease in the latency and increase in accuracy provided by the International GPS Service (IGS) ultrarapid predicted GPS orbit products, we show that the accuracy of these orbits continues to be a limiting factor for the accuracy of near real-time GPS-derived atmospheric estimates. In this work, a coefficient matrix is derived from the normal equations of the least squares adjustment model for the GPS observables that maps the orbital parameter errors into ZTD errors. This is used to analyze the sensitivity of GPS derived tropospheric errors to an extensive set of parameters, including their time dependence, in a computationally efficient manner. We show that ZTD errors are dominated by biases in the orbital semimajor axis, with minor contributions from the inclination and argument of perigee, and that this error increases significantly after the fourth to fifth hour of the prediction window. We implemented a GPS data processing strategy based on an iterative estimation of the three most critical orbital parameters (semimajor axis, inclination and argument of perigee) together with the ZTD parameters. We tested this strategy in a 3500 3500 km network of 15 GPS sites in western Europe providing hourly data files. We show that the standard deviation improvement compared to a strategy based only on the orbit quality index provided with the predicted orbit products is on the order of 20%. The analysis of one month of data in near-real-time shows a bias lower than 1 mm ZTD and a standard deviation lower than 6 mm ZTD compared to using the most precise IGS final orbits. We also show that this strategy is robust and capable of dealing with very large orbit errors appropriately. We demonstrate that the same quality is achievable with a 1500 1500 km network which has positive implications for decentralized processing strategies. The near real-time processing methodology described here meets the current timeliness requirements of operational meteorology (30 mn to 2 hours, depending on the application), while ensuring a level of accuracy similar to that provided in postprocessed mode with precise final IGS orbits (1 mm ZTD bias, 6 mm ZTD RMS). The method we propose can also be considered as an "on-the-fly'' orbit quality control for near real-time GPS applications.

2001
Walpersdorf, A, Calais E, Haase J, Eymard L, Desbois M, Vedel H.  2001.  Atmospheric gradients estimated by GPS compared to a high resolution numerical weather prediction (NWP) model. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth Part a-Solid Earth and Geodesy. 26:147-152. AbstractWebsite

The estimation of horizontal atmospheric gradients, in addition to zenith delays, is a strategy now commonly used in geodetic Global Positioning System (GPS) positioning. This strategy compensates for inhomogeneities in the atmospheric water vapor distribution above GPS sites, and has shown to increase the positioning precision, e.g. in geodynamic networks. While the zenith delay has been successfully related to the pressure at the GPS site and the water vapor above the site, the relation of the GPS estimated horizontal gradients to atmospheric quantities remains unclear. To get a better understanding of the nature of these gradients inferred by GPS, this study compares GPS tropospheric observations from the MAGIC permanent network on the NW side of the Mediterranean Sea with simulations based on the high resolution NWP model ALADIN (Meteo France). To verify the model performance, we use meteorological measurements from the FETCH ship campaign in the Gulf of Lyon in March-April 1998. For this study, five stations of the MAGIC network close to the Golf of Lyon have been selected. Results from two periods, representing two different weather situations occuring within the FETCH observation campaign, are presented. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.