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Zhang, WX, Lou YD, Haase JS, Zhang R, Zheng G, Huang JF, Shi C, Liu JN.  2017.  The Use of Ground-Based GPS Precipitable Water Measurements over China to Assess Radiosonde and ERA-Interim Moisture Trends and Errors from 1999 to 2015. Journal of Climate. 30:7643-7667.   10.1175/jcli-d-16-0591.1   AbstractWebsite

Global positioning system (GPS) data from over 260 ground-based permanent stations in China covering the period from 1 March 1999 to 30 April 2015 were used to estimate precipitable water (PW) above each site with an accuracy of about 0.75 mm. Four types of radiosondes (referred to as GZZ2, GTS1, GTS1-1, and GTS1-2) were used in China during this period. Instrumentation type changes in radiosonde records were identified by comparing PW calculated from GPS and radiosonde data. Systematic errors in different radiosonde types introduced significant biases to the estimated PW trends at stations where more than one radiosonde type was used. Estimating PW trends from reanalysis products (ERA-Interim), which assimilate the unadjusted radiosonde humidity data, resulted in an artificial downward PW trend at almost all stations in China. The statistically significant GPS PW trends are predominantly positive, consistent in sign with the increase in moisture expected from the Clausius-Clapeyron relation due to a global temperature increase. The standard deviations of the differences between ERA-Interim and GPS PW in the summer were 3 times larger than the observational error of GPS PW, suggesting that potentially significant improvements to the reanalysis could be achieved by assimilating denser GPS PW observations over China. This work, based on an entirely independent GPS PW dataset, confirms previously reported significant differences in radiosonde PW trends when using corrected data. Furthermore, the dense geographical coverage of the all-weather GPS PW observations, especially in remote areas in western China, provides a valuable resource for calibrating regional trends in reanalysis products.

Zhang, WX, Lou YD, Gu SF, Shi C, Haase JS, Liu JN.  2016.  Joint estimation of GPS/BDS real-time clocks and initial results. Gps Solutions. 20:665-676.   10.1007/s10291-015-0476-y   AbstractWebsite

We present the joint estimation model for Global Positioning System/BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (GPS/BDS) real-time clocks and present the initial satellite clock solutions determined from 106 stations of the international GNSS service multi-GNSS experiment and the BeiDou experimental tracking stations networks for 1 month in December, 2012. The model is shown to be efficient enough to have no practical computational limit for producing 1-Hz clock updates for real-time applications. The estimated clocks were assessed through the comparison with final clock products and the analysis of post-fit residuals. Using the estimated clocks and corresponding orbit products (GPS ultra-rapid-predicted and BDS final orbits), the root-mean-square (RMS) values of coordinate differences from ground truth values are around 1 and 2-3 cm for GPS-only and BDS-only daily mean static precise point positioning (PPP) solutions, respectively. Accuracy of GPS/BDS combined static PPP solutions falls in between that of GPS-only and BDS-only PPP results, with RMS values approximately 1-2 cm in all three components. For static sites, processed in the kinematic PPP mode, the daily RMS values are normally within 4 and 6 cm after convergence for GPS-only and BDS-only results, respectively. In contrast, the combined GPS/BDS kinematic PPP solutions show higher accuracy and shorter convergence time. Additionally, the BDS-only kinematic PPP solutions using clock products derived from the proposed joint estimation model were superior compared to those computed using the single-system estimation model.

Bowling, T, Calais E, Haase JS.  2013.  Detection and modelling of the ionospheric perturbation caused by a Space Shuttle launch using a network of ground-based Global Positioning System stations. Geophysical Journal International. 192:1324-1331.   10.1093/gji/ggs101   AbstractWebsite

The exhaust plume of the Space Shuttle during its ascent triggers acoustic waves which propagate through the atmosphere and induce electron density changes at ionospheric heights which changes can be measured using ground-based Global Positioning System (GPS) phase data. Here, we use a network of GPS stations to study the acoustic wave generated by the STS-125 Space Shuttle launch on May 11, 2009. We detect the resulting changes in ionospheric electron density, with characteristics that are typical of acoustic waves triggered by explosions at or near the Earth's surface or in the atmosphere. We successfully reproduce the amplitude and timing of the observed signal using a ray-tracing model with a moving source whose amplitude is directly scaled by a physical model of the shuttle exhaust energy, acoustic propagation in a dispersive atmosphere and a simplified two-fluid model of collisions between neutral gas and free electrons in the ionosphere. The close match between observed and model waveforms validates the modelling approach. This raises the possibility of using ground-based GPS networks to estimate the acoustic energy release of explosive sources near the Earth's surface or in atmosphere, and to constrain some atmospheric acoustic parameters.