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2019
Carvajal, M, Araya-Cornejo C, Sepulveda I, Melnick D, Haase JS.  2019.  Nearly instantaneous tsunamis following the Mw 7.5 2018 Palu earthquake. Geophysical Research Letters. 46:5117-5126.   10.1029/2019gl082578   AbstractWebsite

The tsunami observations produced by the 2018 magnitude 7.5 Palu strike-slip earthquake challenged the traditional basis underlying tsunami hazard assessments and early warning systems. We analyzed an extraordinary collection of 38 amateur and closed circuit television videos to show that the Palu tsunamis devastated widely separated coastal areas around Palu Bay within a few minutes after the mainshock and included wave periods shorter than 100 s missed by the local tide station. Although rupture models based on teleseismic and geodetic data predict up to 5-m tsunami runups, they cannot explain the higher surveyed runups nor the tsunami waveforms reconstructed from video footage, suggesting either these underestimate actual seafloor deformation and/or that non-tectonic sources were involved. Post-tsunami coastline surveys combined with video evidence and modeled tsunami travel times suggest that submarine landslides contributed to tsunami generation. The video-based observations have broad implications for tsunami hazard assessments, early warning systems, and risk-reduction planning. Plain Laguage Summary Tsunami hazard assessment is routinely based on assessing the impacts of long-period waves generated by vertical seafloor motions reaching the coast tens of minutes after the earthquake in typical subduction-zone environments. This view is inadequate for assessing hazard associated with strike-slip earthquakes such as the magnitude 7.5 2018 Palu earthquake, which resulted in tsunami effects much larger than would normally be associated with horizontal fault motion. From an extraordinary collection of 38 amateur and closed circuit television videos we estimated tsunami arrival times, amplitudes, and wave periods at different locations around Palu Bay, where the most damaging waves were reported. We found that the Palu tsunamis devastated widely separated coastal areas within a few minutes after the mainshock and included unusually short wave periods, which cannot be explained by the earthquake fault slip alone. Post-tsunami surveys show changes in the coastline, and this combined with video footage provides potential locations of submarine landslides as tsunami sources that would match the arrival times of the waves. Our results emphasize the importance of estimating tsunami hazards along coastlines bordering strike-slip fault systems and have broad implications for considering shorter-period nearly instantaneous tsunamis in hazard mitigation and tsunami early warning systems.

2018
Saunders, JK, Haase JS.  2018.  Augmenting onshore GNSS displacements with offshore observations to improve slip characterization for Cascadia Subduction Zone earthquakes. Geophysical Research Letters. 45:6008-6017.   10.1029/2018gl078233   AbstractWebsite

For the Cascadia subduction zone, M-w similar to 8 megathrust earthquake hazard is of particular interest because uncertainties in the predicted tsunami size affect evacuation alerts. To reduce these uncertainties, we examine how augmenting the current Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) network in Cascadia with offshore stations improves static slip inversions for M-w similar to 8 megathrust earthquakes at different rupture depths. We test two offshore coseismic data types: vertical-only bottom pressure sensors and pressure sensors combined with GNSS-Acoustic aided horizontal positions. We find that amphibious networks best constrain slip for a shallow earthquake compared to onshore-only networks when offshore stations are located above the rupture. However, inversions using vertical-only offshore data underestimate shallow slip and tsunami impact. Including offshore horizontal observations improves slip estimates, particularly maximum slip. This suggests that while real-time GNSS-Acoustic sensors may have a long development timeline, they will have more impact for static inversion-based tsunami early warning systems than bottom pressure sensors. Plain Language Summary The Cascadia subduction zone is the region of highest tsunami hazard within the contiguous United States. This region has experienced many tsunamis over the last 10,000years that were generated by earthquakes of magnitude 8 to 9. Magnitude 8 earthquakes in the subduction zone can be tricky for tsunami early warning systems because it is difficult to determine the depth of the earthquake rupture, which strongly affects the anticipated tsunami size. This can make the difference between an evacuation order being issued or not. This study tests how estimating total slip on the earthquake fault during rupture and the resulting tsunami wave height for magnitude 8 earthquakes can be improved when combining the current land-based Global Navigation Satellite Systems monitoring network in the Pacific Northwest with offshore seafloor networks. We test hypothetical arrangements of offshore stations that measure the vertical seafloor motion with ocean bottom pressure sensors. We also test networks that measure motion in all three directions by including Global Navigation Satellite Systems measurements at the sea surface linked by acoustic communication to measurement points on the seafloor. This work can help plan where best to put new offshore instruments as they are developed for future tsunami early warning systems.