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Chen, XM, Chen SH, Haase JS, Murphy BJ, Wang KN, Garrison JL, Chen SY, Huang CY, Adhikari L, Xie F.  2018.  The impact of airborne radio occultation observations on the simulation of Hurricane Karl (2010). Monthly Weather Review. 146:329-350.   10.1175/mwr-d-17-0001.1   AbstractWebsite

This study evaluates, for the first time, the impact of airborne global positioning system radio occultation (ARO) observations on a hurricane forecast. A case study was conducted of Hurricane Karl during the PreDepression Investigation of Cloud-Systems in the Tropics (PREDICT) field campaign in 2010. The assimilation of ARO data was developed for the three-dimensional variational (3DVAR) analysis system of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model version 3.2. The impact of ARO data on Karl forecasts was evaluated through data assimilation (DA) experiments of local refractivity and nonlocal excess phase (EPH), in which the latter accounts for the integrated horizontal sampling along the signal ray path. The tangent point positions (closest point of an RO ray path to Earth's surface) drift horizontally, and the drifting distance of ARO data is about 2 to 3 times that of spaceborne RO, which was taken into account in these simulations. Results indicate that in the absence of other satellite observations, the assimilation of ARO EPH resulted in a larger impact on the analysis than local refractivity did. In particular, the assimilation of ARO observations at the actual tangent point locations resulted in more accurate forecasts of the rapid intensification of the storm. Among all experiments, the best forecast was obtained by assimilating ARO data with the most accurate geometric representation, that is, the use of nonlocal EPH operators with tangent point drift, which reduced the error in the storm's predicted minimum sea level pressure (SLP) by 43% beyond that of the control experiment.

Wang, KN, Garrison JL, Haase JS, Murphy BJ.  2017.  Improvements to GPS Airborne Radio Occultation in the Lower Troposphere Through Implementation of the Phase Matching Method. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres. 122:10215-10230.   10.1002/2017jd026568   AbstractWebsite

Airborne radio occultation (ARO) is a remote sensing technique for atmospheric sounding using Global Positioning System signals received by an airborne instrument. The atmospheric refractivity profile, which depends on pressure, temperature, and water vapor, can be retrieved by measuring the signal delay due to the refractive medium through which the signal traverses. The ARO system was developed to make repeated observations within an individual meteorological event such as a tropical storm, regardless of the presence of clouds and precipitation, and complements existing observation techniques such as dropsondes and satellite remote sensing. RO systems can suffer multipath ray propagation in the lower troposphere if there are strong refractivity gradients, for example, due to a highly variable moisture distribution or a sharp boundary layer, interfering with continuous carrier phase tracking as well as complicating retrievals. The phase matching method has now been adapted for ARO and is shown to reduce negative biases in the refractivity retrieval by providing robust retrievals of bending angle in the presence of multipath. The retrieval results are presented for a flight campaign in September 2010 for Hurricane Karl in the Caribbean Sea. The accuracy is assessed through comparison with the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts Interim Reanalysis. The fractional difference in refractivity can be maintained at a standard deviation of 2% from flight level down to a height of 2km. The phase matching method decreases the negative refractivity bias by as much as 4% over the classical geometrical optics retrieval method.

Saunders, JK, Goldberg DE, Haase JS, Bock Y, Offield DG, Melgar D, Restrepo J, Fleischman RB, Nema A, Geng JH, Walls C, Mann D, Mattioli GS.  2016.  Seismogeodesy using GPS and low-cost MEMS accelerometers: Perspectives for earthquake early warning and rapid response. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America. 106:2469-2489.   10.1785/0120160062   AbstractWebsite

The seismogeodetic method computes accurate displacement and velocity waveforms by optimally extracting high-frequency information from strong-motion accelerometers and low-frequency information from collocated Global Positioning System (GPS) instruments. These broadband observations retain the permanent (static) displacement, are immune to clipping and magnitude saturation for large earthquakes, and are sensitive enough to record P-wave arrivals. These characteristics make seismogeodesy suitable for real-time applications such as earthquake early warning. The Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO) has developed an inexpensive microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) accelerometer package to upgrade established GPS stations. We compare the performance of our MEMS accelerometer with an observatory-grade accelerometer using an experiment at the University of California San Diego Large High-Performance Outdoor Shake Table. We show that the two types of accelerometers agree in frequency ranges of seismological and engineering interest and produce equivalent seismogeodetic estimates of displacement and velocity. To date, 27 SIO MEMS packages have been installed at GPS monitoring stations in southern California and the San Francisco Bay area and have recorded four earthquakes (M4.2, M4.1, and two of M4.0). The P-wave arrivals are distinguishable in the seismogeodetic observations at distances of up to similar to 25 km away but not in the GPS-only displacements. There is no significant permanent deformation for these small events. This study demonstrates the lower limit of detectability and that seismogeodetic waveforms can also be a reliable early confirmation that an event is not large or hazardous. It also raises the possibility of rapid magnitude estimation through scaling relationships.

Melgar, D, Geng JH, Crowell BW, Haase JS, Bock Y, Hammond WC, Allen RM.  2015.  Seismogeodesy of the 2014 M(w)6.1 Napa earthquake, California: Rapid response and modeling of fast rupture on a dipping strike-slip fault. Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth. 120:5013-5033.   10.1002/2015jb011921   AbstractWebsite

Real-time high-rate geodetic data have been shown to be useful for rapid earthquake response systems during medium to large events. The 2014 M(w)6.1 Napa, California earthquake is important because it provides an opportunity to study an event at the lower threshold of what can be detected with GPS. We show the results of GPS-only earthquake source products such as peak ground displacement magnitude scaling, centroid moment tensor (CMT) solution, and static slip inversion. We also highlight the retrospective real-time combination of GPS and strong motion data to produce seismogeodetic waveforms that have higher precision and longer period information than GPS-only or seismic-only measurements of ground motion. We show their utility for rapid kinematic slip inversion and conclude that it would have been possible, with current real-time infrastructure, to determine the basic features of the earthquake source. We supplement the analysis with strong motion data collected close to the source to obtain an improved postevent image of the source process. The model reveals unilateral fast propagation of slip to the north of the hypocenter with a delayed onset of shallow slip. The source model suggests that the multiple strands of observed surface rupture are controlled by the shallow soft sediments of Napa Valley and do not necessarily represent the intersection of the main faulting surface and the free surface. We conclude that the main dislocation plane is westward dipping and should intersect the surface to the east, either where the easternmost strand of surface rupture is observed or at the location where the West Napa fault has been mapped in the past.

Xie, FQ, Haase JS, Syndergaard S.  2008.  Profiling the Atmosphere Using the Airborne GPS Radio Occultation Technique: A Sensitivity Study. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing. 46:3424-3435.   <u>10.1109/tgrs.2008.2004713</u>   AbstractWebsite

Global Positioning System (GPS) radio occultation (RO) sounding, with its high vertical resolution temperature and humidity profiling capability, is revolutionizing atmospheric science, particularly through assimilation in numerical weather prediction (NWP) models. Currently, the observations are derived from GPS receivers onboard low Earth orbiting satellites. However, with the current number of satellites, it is difficult to provide dense sounding measurements in a specific region within a limited time period. With a GPS receiver onboard an airplane, the GPS RO technique offers such an opportunity while retaining the high vertical resolution sounding capability. The GNSS Instrument System for Multistatic and Occultation Sensing is currently under development for the National Science Foundation's High-performance Instrumented Airborne Platform for Environmental Research (HIAPER) aircraft. This paper presents a sensitivity analysis of the airborne occultation technique that will be used for the HIAPER system. The results demonstrate an anticipated overall accuracy of better than 0.5% for the retrieved refractivity from the surface to about 1 km below the airplane, where the expected airplane velocity errors of up to 5 mm/s limit the accuracy. The effects on the retrievals due to horizontal variations in atmospheric refractivity are significant, and retrieval errors may reach several percent inside frontal systems when the front is perpendicular to the ray paths and within 200 km of the tangent point. In general, the airborne GPS RO system provides a promising new data source for NWP and targeted observational studies.

Emore, GL, Haase JS, Choi K, Larson KA, Yamagiwa A.  2007.  Recovering seismic displacements through combined use of 1-Hz GPS and strong-motion accelerometers. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America. 97:357-378.   10.1785/0120060153   AbstractWebsite

Retrieving displacement from seismic acceleration records is often difficult because unknown small baseline offsets in the acceleration time series will contaminate the doubly integrated record with large quadratic errors. One-hertz Global Positioning System (GPS) position estimates and collocated seismic data are available from the 2003 M-W 8 Tokachi-Oki (Hokkaido) earthquake. After a process of correcting for possible misorientation of the seismic sensors, an inversion method is used to simultaneously solve for ground displacement with both data sets as input constraints. This inversion method takes into account the presence of unknown offsets in the acceleration record, and the relatively large uncertainties in the estimated 1-Hz GPS positions. In this study, 117 channels of seismic data were analyzed. Only 5% of the time does the static displacement retrieved from traditional baseline correction processing without GPS information agree with the absolute displacement measured with 1-Hz GPS to within the errors of the GPS data. In solving simultaneously for constrained displacements that agree with both the seismic and GPS data sets, an optimal solution was found that included only one- or two-step functions in the acceleration records. Potential explanations for the offsets are analyzed in terms of tilt of the sensor or electronic noise. For nine stations, clear misorientations of the seismic sensors of more than 20 deg from the reported orientation were found. For this size event, the 30-sec sampled GPS solutions were also a sufficient constraint for establishing the offset errors and recovering reliable displacements. The results significantly extend the frequency band over which accelerometer data are reliable for source inversion studies.