Improving the resolution of the 2010 Haiti earthquake fault geometry using temporary seismometer deployments

Douilly, R, Haase JS, Ellsworth WL, Bouin M-P, Calais E, Symithe S, Armbruster JG, Mercier De Lepinay BF, Deschamps A, Saint-Louis M, Meremonte ME, Hough SE.  2012.  Improving the resolution of the 2010 Haiti earthquake fault geometry using temporary seismometer deployments. Bull. Seis. Soc. Am. in review


Haiti has several active faults that are capable of producing large earthquakes such as the 2010 Mw 7.0 Haiti earthquake. This earthquake was not unexpected, given geodetic measurements showing strain accumulation on the Enriquillo Plantain Garden Fault Zone, the major fault system in southern Haiti (Manaker et al. 2008). GPS and INSAR data (Calais et al., 2010) show, however, that this rupture occurred on the previously unmapped Léogâne fault, a 60° north dipping oblique blind thrust located immediately north of the Enriquillo Fault. Following the earthquake, several groups installed temporary seismic stations to record aftershocks. Natural Resources Canada installed three broadband seismic stations, Géoazur installed 21 ocean bottom seismometers, L’Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris installed 5 broadband seismometers, and the United States Geological Survey deployed 17 short period and strong motion seismometers in and around Port-au-Prince. We use data from this complete set of stations, along with data from permanent regional stations, to relocate all of the events from March 17 to June 24, to determine the regional one-dimensional crustal structure and determine focal mechanisms. The aftershock locations from the combined data set clearly delineate the Léogâne fault. The strike and dip closely agrees with that of the global centroid moment tensor solution, but appears to be more steeply dipping than the finite fault inversions. The aftershocks also delineate a flat structure on the west side of the rupture zone and may indicate triggered seismicity on the Trois Baies fault, although the depths of these events are not as well constrained. There is no clear evidence for aftershocks on the other rupture segments inferred in the Hayes et al. (2010) mainshock rupture model. There is a cluster of aftershocks in the hanging wall near the western patch of high slip identified by Calais et al. (2010) and Meng et al. (2011), or central patch in the Hayes et al. (2010) model. We use first-motion focal mechanism solutions to clarify the relationship of the fault geometry to the mechanisms of the larger events.