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Keen, EM, Wray J, Meuter H, Thompson KL, Barlow JP, Picard CR.  2017.  'Whale wave': shifting strategies structure the complex use of critical fjord habitat by humpbacks. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 567:211-233.   10.3354/meps12012   AbstractWebsite

A decade of visual surveys (2005-2014) revealed that humpbacks Megaptera novaeangliae occupy a temperate fjord system in British Columbia, Canada, in a wave pattern that propagates from outer channels in the summer to deep inland channels in late fall. Monte Carlo randomization confirmed this apparent pattern statistically. 'Before' and 'after' shift phases were most evident in July and October, respectively. We hypothesized that the 'whale wave' was being driven by (1) prey following, (2) the tracking of environmental proxies, (3) fine-scale philopatry, or some combination of these three factors. To evaluate these hypotheses, we collected new data in 2015, including visual and hydroacoustic surveys and oceanographic sampling. To both full-season and monthly datasets, we fit generalized additive models (GAMs) in a stepwise procedure, using variable sets that represent our hypotheses. Prey models were generally the worst predictors of humpback distribution, while the most complex habitat models were the best. The Prey model performed best in June but increasingly poorly in remaining months. The performance of all models declined throughout the season, suggesting not only that this whale wave is being driven by needs other than food, but also that untested variable(s) inform late-season distribution. Alternative explanations of the wave include physiological maintenance and social habitat partitioning. Our findings demonstrate that marine predators can use complex spatial strategies not only to navigate vast areas of ocean but also to exploit specific habitats thoroughly. Though annually persistent and specific in structure, the whale wave would go (and has gone) unnoticed in typical marine mammal surveys.

Bradford, AL, Forney KA, Oleson EM, Barlow J.  2017.  Abundance estimates of cetaceans from a line-transect survey within the US Hawaiian Islands Exclusive Economic Zone. Fishery Bulletin. 115:129-142.   10.7755/fb.115.2.1   AbstractWebsite

A ship-based line-transect survey was conducted during the summer and fall of 2010 to obtain abundance estimates of cetaceans in the U.S. Hawaiian Islands Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). Given the low sighting rates for cetaceans in the study area, sightings from 2010 were pooled with sightings made during previous line-transect surveys within the central Pacific for calculating detection functions, which were estimated by using a multiple-covariate approach. The trackline detection probabilities used in this study are the first to reflect the effect of sighting conditions in the central Pacific and are markedly lower than estimates used in previous studies. During the survey, 23 cetacean species (17 odontocetes and 6 mysticetes) were seen, and abundance was estimated for 19 of them (15 odontocetes and 4 mysticetes). Group size and Beaufort sea state were the most important factors affecting the detectability of cetacean groups. Across all species, abundance estimates and coefficients of variation range from 133 to 72,528 and from 0.29 to 1.13, respectively. Estimated abundance is highest for delphinid species and lowest for the killer whale (Orcinus orca) and rorqual species. Overall, cetacean density in the Hawaiian Islands EEZ is low in comparison with highly productive oceanic regions.

Van Cise, AM, Roch MA, Baird RW, Mooney TA, Barlow J.  2017.  Acoustic differentiation of Shiho- and Naisa-type short-finned pilot whales in the Pacific Ocean. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 141:737-748.   10.1121/1.4974858   AbstractWebsite

Divergence in acoustic signals used by different populations of marine mammals can be caused by a variety of environmental, hereditary, or social factors, and can indicate isolation between those populations. Two types of genetically and morphologically distinct short-finned pilot whales, called the Naisa- and Shiho-types when first described off Japan, have been identified in the Pacific Ocean. Acoustic differentiation between these types would support their designation as sub-species or species, and improve the understanding of their distribution in areas where genetic samples are difficult to obtain. Calls from two regions representing the two types were analyzed using 24 recordings from Hawai ' i (Naisa- type) and 12 recordings from the eastern Pacific Ocean (Shiho-type). Calls from the two types were significantly differentiated in median start frequency, frequency range, and duration, and were significantly differentiated in the cumulative distribution of start frequency, frequency range, and duration. Gaussian mixture models were used to classify calls from the two different regions with 74% accuracy, which was significantly greater than chance. The results of these analyses indicate that the two types are acoustically distinct, which supports the hypothesis that the two types may be separate sub-species.

Jacobson, EK, Forney KA, Barlow J.  2017.  Using paired visual and passive acoustic surveys to estimate passive acoustic detection parameters for harbor porpoise abundance estimates. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 141:219-230.   10.1121/1.4973415   AbstractWebsite

Passive acoustic monitoring is a promising approach for monitoring long-term trends in harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) abundance. Before passive acoustic monitoring can be implemented to estimate harbor porpoise abundance, information about the detectability of harbor porpoise is needed to convert recorded numbers of echolocation clicks to harbor porpoise densities. In the present study, paired data from a grid of nine passive acoustic click detectors (C-PODs, Chelonia Ltd., United Kingdom) and three days of simultaneous aerial line-transect visual surveys were collected over a 370 km(2) study area. The focus of the study was estimating the effective detection area of the passive acoustic sensors, which was defined as the product of the sound production rate of individual animals and the area within which those sounds are detected by the passive acoustic sensors. Visually estimated porpoise densities were used as informative priors in a Bayesian model to solve for the effective detection area for individual harbor porpoises. This model-based approach resulted in a posterior distribution of the effective detection area of individual harbor porpoises consistent with previously published values. This technique is a viable alternative for estimating the effective detection area of passive acoustic sensors when other experimental approaches are not feasible.

Kendall-Bar, JM, Weller DW, Fearnbach H, Shane S, Schorr GS, Falcone EA, Calambokidis J, Schulman-Janiger A, Barlow J.  2016.  Movement and occurrence patterns of short-finned pilot whales (Globicephala macrorhynchus) in the Eastern North Pacific. Aquatic Mammals. 42:300-305.   10.1578/am.42.3.2016.300   AbstractWebsite
Griffiths, ET, Barlow J.  2016.  Cetacean acoustic detections from free-floating vertical hydrophone arrays in the southern California Current. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 140:EL399-EL404.   10.1121/1.4967012   AbstractWebsite
Keating, JL, Barlow J, Rankin S.  2016.  Shifts in frequency-modulated pulses recorded during an encounter with Blainville's beaked whales (Mesoplodon densirostris). Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 140:EL166-EL171.   10.1121/1.4959598   AbstractWebsite

Echolocation signals produced by beaked whales (family: Ziphiidae) include frequency-modulated (FM) pulses that appear to have species-specific characteristics. To date there has been no established evidence that a single species of beaked whale might produce more than one type of FM pulse. In 2014 a group of Blainville's beaked whales (Mesoplodon densirostris) were sighted off of Southern California; recordings included FM pulses with significant increases in peak frequency, center frequency, and -10 dB bandwidth relative to FM pulses previously attributed to this species. This research suggests there may be greater variation in received beaked whale FM pulses than previously understood.

Fleming, AH, Clark CT, Calambokidis J, Barlow J.  2016.  Humpback whale diets respond to variance in ocean climate and ecosystem conditions in the California Current. Global Change Biology. 22:1214-1224.   10.1111/gcb.13171   AbstractWebsite

Large, migratory predators are often cited as sentinel species for ecosystem processes and climate-related changes, but their utility as indicators is dependent upon an understanding of their response to environmental variability. Documentation of the links between climate variability, ecosystem change and predator dynamics is absent for most top predators. Identifying species that may be useful indicators and elucidating these mechanistic links provides insight into current ecological dynamics and may inform predictions of future ecosystem responses to climatic change. We examine humpback whale response to environmental variability through stable isotope analysis of diet over a dynamic 20-year period (1993-2012) in the California Current System (CCS). Humpback whale diets captured two major shifts in oceanographic and ecological conditions in the CCS. Isotopic signatures reflect a diet dominated by krill during periods characterized by positive phases of the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO), cool sea surface temperature (SST), strong upwelling and high krill biomass. In contrast, humpback whale diets are dominated by schooling fish when the NPGO is negative, SST is warmer, seasonal upwelling is delayed and anchovy and sardine populations display increased biomass and range expansion. These findings demonstrate that humpback whales trophically respond to ecosystem shifts, and as a result, their foraging behavior is a synoptic indicator of oceanographic and ecological conditions across the CCS. Multi-decadal examination of these sentinel species thus provides insight into biological consequences of interannual climate fluctuations, fundamental to advancing ecosystem predictions related to global climate change.

Rankin, S, Oswald JN, Simonis AE, Barlow J.  2015.  Vocalizations of the rough-toothed dolphin, Steno bredanensis, in the Pacific Ocean. Marine Mammal Science. 31:1538-1548.   10.1111/mms.12226   AbstractWebsite
Barlow, J.  2015.  Inferring trackline detection probabilities, g(0), for cetaceans from apparent densities in different survey conditions. Marine Mammal Science. 31:923-943.   10.1111/mms.12205   AbstractWebsite

Visual line-transect surveys are commonly used to estimate cetacean abundance. A key parameter in such studies is g(0), the probability of detecting an animal that is directly on the transect line. This is typically considered to be constant for a species across survey conditions. A method is developed to estimate the relative values of g(0) in different survey conditions (Beaufort state) by comparing Beaufort-specific density estimates. The approach is based on fitting generalized additive models, with the presence of a sighting on a survey segment as the dependent variable, Beaufort state as the key explanatory variable, and year, latitude, and longitude as nuisance variables to control for real differences in density over time and space. Values of relative g(0) are estimated for 20 cetacean taxa using 175,000km of line-transect survey data from the eastern and central Pacific Ocean from 1986 to 2010. Results show that g(0) decreases as Beaufort state increases, even for visually conspicuous species. This effect is greatest for the least conspicuous species (rough-toothed dolphins, beaked whales, minke whales, and dwarf and pygmy sperm whales). Ignoring these large effects results in a nontrivial bias in cetacean abundance estimates.

Forney, KA, Becker EA, Foley DG, Barlow J, Oleson EM.  2015.  Habitat-based models of cetacean density and distribution in the central North Pacific. Endangered Species Research. 27:1-20.   10.3354/esr00632   AbstractWebsite

The central North Pacific Ocean includes diverse temperate and tropical pelagic habitats. Studies of the abundance and distribution of cetaceans within these dynamic marine ecosystems have generally been patchy or conducted at coarse spatial and temporal scales, limiting their utility for pelagic conservation planning. Habitat-based density models provide a tool for identifying pelagic areas of importance to cetaceans, because model predictions are spatially explicit. In this study, we present habitat-based models of cetacean density that were developed and validated for the central North Pacific. Spatial predictions of cetacean densities and measures of uncertainty were derived based on data collected during 15 large-scale shipboard cetacean and ecosystem assessment surveys conducted from 1997 to 2012. We developed generalized additive models using static and remotely sensed dynamic habitat variables, including distance to land, sea-surface temperature (SST), standard deviation of SST, surface chlorophyll concentration, seasurface height (SSH), and SSH root-mean-square variation. The resulting models, developed using new grid-based prediction methods, provide finer scale information on the distribution and density of cetaceans than previously available. Habitat-based abundance estimates around Hawaii are similar to those derived from standard line-transect analyses of the same data and provide enhanced spatial resolution to inform management and conservation of pelagic cetacean species.

Pardo, MA, Gerrodette T, Beier E, Gendron D, Forney KA, Chivers SJ, Barlow J, Palacios DM.  2015.  Inferring cetacean population densities from the absolute dynamic topography of the ocean in a hierarchical bayesian framework. Plos One. 10   10.1371/journal.pone.0120727   AbstractWebsite

We inferred the population densities of blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus) and short-beaked common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) in the Northeast Pacific Ocean as functions of the water-column's physical structure by implementing hierarchical models in a Bayesian framework. This approach allowed us to propagate the uncertainty of the field observations into the inference of species-habitat relationships and to generate spatially explicit population density predictions with reduced effects of sampling heterogeneity. Our hypothesis was that the large-scale spatial distributions of these two cetacean species respond primarily to ecological processes resulting from shoaling and outcropping of the pycnocline in regions of wind-forced upwelling and eddy-like circulation. Physically, these processes affect the thermodynamic balance of the water column, decreasing its volume and thus the height of the absolute dynamic topography (ADT). Biologically, they lead to elevated primary productivity and persistent aggregation of low-trophic-level prey. Unlike other remotely sensed variables, ADT provides information about the structure of the entire water column and it is also routinely measured at high spatial-temporal resolution by satellite altimeters with uniform global coverage. Our models provide spatially explicit population density predictions for both species, even in areas where the pycnocline shoals but does not outcrop (e.g. the Costa Rica Dome and the North Equatorial Countercurrent thermocline ridge). Interannual variations in distribution during El Nino anomalies suggest that the population density of both species decreases dramatically in the Equatorial Cold Tongue and the Costa Rica Dome, and that their distributions retract to particular areas that remain productive, such as the more oceanic waters in the central California Current System, the northern Gulf of California, the North Equatorial Countercurrent thermocline ridge, and the more southern portion of the Humboldt Current System. We posit that such reductions in available foraging habitats during climatic disturbances could incur high energetic costs on these populations, ultimately affecting individual fitness and survival.

Calderan, S, Miller B, Collins K, Ensor P, Double M, Leaper R, Barlow J.  2014.  Low-frequency vocalizations of sei whales (Balaenoptera borealis) in the Southern Ocean. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 136:EL418-EL423.   10.1121/1.4902422   AbstractWebsite

Simultaneous sightings and acoustic detections of sei whales (Balaenoptera borealis) are scarce, and there are few published data describing their vocalizations. Analysis of recordings from directional frequency analysis and recording sonobuoys in the presence of sei whales in the Southern Ocean in March 2013 identified both downsweep and upsweep calls. Sound frequencies within all calls were between 34 and 87 Hz with an average call duration of 1.1 s. These very low-frequency sounds share characteristics with sei whale calls recorded near the Hawaiian Islands and off Cape Cod in winter and summer, respectively, but are the first documented sei whale calls in the Southern Ocean that are clearly less than 100 Hz. (C) 2014 Acoustical Society of America

Forney, KA, Barlow JP, Hildebrand JA, Douglas AB, Calambokidis J, Sydeman WJ.  2014.  Effects of fluctuations in sea-surface temperature on the occurrence of small cetaceans off Southern California. Fishery Bulletin. 112:159-177.   10.7755/fb.112.2-3.5   AbstractWebsite

The link between ocean temperature and spatial and temporal distribution patterns of 8 species of small cetaceans off Southern California was examined during the period 1979-2009. Averages and anomalies of sea-surface temperatures (SSTs) were used as proxies for SST fluctuations on 3 temporal scales: seasonal, El Nino-Southern Oscillations (ENSO), and Pacific Decadal Oscillations (PDO). The hypothesis that cetacean species assemblages and habitat associations in southern California waters co-vary with these periodic changes in SST was tested by using generalized additive models. Seasonal SST averages were included as a predictor in the models for Dall's porpoise (Phocoenoides dalli), and common dolphins (Delphinus spp.), northern right whale dolphin (Lissodelphis borealis), and Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus). The ENSO index was included as a predictor for northern right whale, long-beaked common (Delphinus capensis), and Risso's dolphins. The PDO index was selected as a predictor for Dall's porpoise and Pacific white-sided (Lagenorhynchus obliquidens), common, and bottlenose (Tursiops truncatus) dolphins. A metric of bathymetric depth was included in every model, and seafloor slope was included in 5 of the 9 models, an indication of a distinctive spatial distribution for each species that may represent niche or resource partitioning in a region where multiple species have overlapping ranges. Temporal changes in distribution are likely a response to changes in prey abundance or dispersion, and these patterns associated with SST variation may foreshadow future, more permanent shifts in distribution range that are due to global climate change.

Miller, BS, Collins K, Barlow J, Calderan S, Leaper R, McDonald M, Ensor P, Olson PA, Olavarria C, Double MC.  2014.  Blue whale vocalizations recorded around New Zealand: 1964-2013. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 135:1616-1623.   10.1121/1.4863647   AbstractWebsite

Previous underwater recordings made in New Zealand have identified a complex sequence of low frequency sounds that have been attributed to blue whales based on similarity to blue whale songs in other areas. Recordings of sounds with these characteristics were made opportunistically during the Southern Ocean Research Partnership's recent Antarctic Blue Whale Voyage. Detections of these sounds occurred all around the South Island of New Zealand during the voyage transits from Nelson, New Zealand to the Antarctic and return. By following acoustic bearings from directional sonobuoys, blue whales were visually detected and confirmed as the source of these sounds. These recordings, together with the historical recordings made northeast of New Zealand, indicate song types that persist over several decades and are indicative of the year-round presence of a population of blue whales that inhabits the waters around New Zealand. Measurements of the four-part vocalizations reveal that blue whale song in this region has changed slowly, but consistently over the past 50 years. The most intense units of these calls were detected as far south as 53 degrees S, which represents a considerable range extension compared to the limited prior data on the spatial distribution of this population. (C) 2014 Acoustical Society of America.

Bradford, AL, Forney KA, Oleson EM, Barlow J.  2014.  Accounting for subgroup structure in line-transect abundance estimates of false killer whales (Pseudorca crassidens) in Hawaiian waters. Plos One. 9   10.1371/journal.pone.0090464   AbstractWebsite

For biological populations that form aggregations (or clusters) of individuals, cluster size is an important parameter in line-transect abundance estimation and should be accurately measured. Cluster size in cetaceans has traditionally been represented as the total number of individuals in a group, but group size may be underestimated if group members are spatially diffuse. Groups of false killer whales (Pseudorca crassidens) can comprise numerous subgroups that are dispersed over tens of kilometers, leading to a spatial mismatch between a detected group and the theoretical framework of line-transect analysis. Three stocks of false killer whales are found within the U. S. Exclusive Economic Zone of the Hawaiian Islands (Hawaiian EEZ): an insular main Hawaiian Islands stock, a pelagic stock, and a Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) stock. A ship-based line-transect survey of the Hawaiian EEZ was conducted in the summer and fall of 2010, resulting in six systematic-effort visual sightings of pelagic (n = 5) and NWHI (n = 1) false killer whale groups. The maximum number and spatial extent of subgroups per sighting was 18 subgroups and 35 km, respectively. These sightings were combined with data from similar previous surveys and analyzed within the conventional line-transect estimation framework. The detection function, mean cluster size, and encounter rate were estimated separately to appropriately incorporate data collected using different methods. Unlike previous line-transect analyses of cetaceans, subgroups were treated as the analytical cluster instead of groups because subgroups better conform to the specifications of line-transect theory. Bootstrap values (n = 5,000) of the line-transect parameters were randomly combined to estimate the variance of stock-specific abundance estimates. Hawai'i pelagic and NWHI false killer whales were estimated to number 1,552 (CV = 0.66; 95% CI = 479-5,030) and 552 (CV = 1.09; 95% CI = 97-3,123) individuals, respectively. Subgroup structure is an important factor to consider in line-transect analyses of false killer whales and other species with complex grouping patterns.

Fearnbach, H, Durban JW, Ellifrit DK, Waite JM, Matkin CO, Lunsford CR, Peterson MJ, Barlow J, Wade PR.  2014.  Spatial and social connectivity of fish-eating "Resident" killer whales (Orcinus orca) in the northern North Pacific. Marine Biology. 161:459-472.   10.1007/s00227-013-2351-0   AbstractWebsite

The productive North Pacific waters of the Gulf of Alaska, Aleutian Islands and Bering Sea support a high density of fish-eating "Resident" type killer whales (Orcinus orca), which overlap in distribution with commercial fisheries, producing both direct and indirect interactions. To provide a spatial context for these interactions, we analyzed a 10-year dataset of 3,058 whale photo-identifications from 331 encounters within a large (linear similar to 4,000 km) coastal study area to investigate the ranging and social patterns of 532 individually identifiable whales photographed in more than one encounter. Although capable of large-scale movements (maximum 1,443 km), we documented ranges generally < 200 km, with high site fidelity across summer sampling intervals and also re-sightings during a winter survey. Bayesian analysis of pair-wise associations identified four defined clusters, likely representing groupings of stable matrilines, with distinct ranging patterns, that combined to form a large network of associated whales that ranged across most of the study area. This provides evidence of structure within the Alaska stock of Resident killer whales, important for evaluating ecosystem and fisheries impacts. This network included whales known to depredate groundfish from longline fisheries, and we suggest that such large-scale connectivity has facilitated the spread of depredation.

Moore, JE, Barlow JP.  2013.  Declining Abundance of Beaked Whales ( Family Ziphiidae) in the California Current Large Marine Ecosystem. Plos One. 8 AbstractWebsite

Beaked whales are among the most diverse yet least understood groups of marine mammals. A diverse set of mostly anthropogenic threats necessitates improvement in our ability to assess population status for this cryptic group. The Southwest Fisheries Science Center (NOAA) conducted six ship line-transect cetacean abundance surveys in the California Current off the contiguous western United States between 1991 and 2008. We used a Bayesian hidden-process modeling approach to estimate abundance and population trends of beaked whales using sightings data from these surveys. We also compiled records of beaked whale stranding events (3 genera, at least 8 species) on adjacent beaches from 1900 to 2012, to help assess population status of beaked whales in the northern part of the California Current. Bayesian posterior summaries for trend parameters provide strong evidence of declining beaked whale abundance in the study area. The probability of negative trend for Cuvier's beaked w!

Redfern, JV, McKenna MF, Moore TJ, Calambokidis J, Deangelis ML, Becker EA, Barlow J, Forney KA, Fiedler PC, Chivers SJ.  2013.  Assessing the Risk of Ships Striking Large Whales in Marine Spatial Planning. Conservation Biology. 27:292-302.   10.1111/cobi.12029   AbstractWebsite

Marine spatial planning provides a comprehensive framework for managing multiple uses of the marine environment and has the potential to minimize environmental impacts and reduce conflicts among users. Spatially explicit assessments of the risks to key marine species from human activities are a requirement of marine spatial planning. We assessed the risk of ships striking humpback (Megaptera novaeangliae), blue (Balaenoptera musculus), and fin (Balaenoptera physalus) whales in alternative shipping routes derived from patterns of shipping traffic off Southern California (U.S.A.). Specifically, we developed whale-habitat models and assumed ship-strike risk for the alternative shipping routes was proportional to the number of whales predicted by the models to occur within each route. This definition of risk assumes all ships travel within a single route. We also calculated risk assuming ships travel via multiple routes. We estimated the potential for conflict between shipping and other uses (military training and fishing) due to overlap with the routes. We also estimated the overlap between shipping routes and protected areas. The route with the lowest risk for humpback whales had the highest risk for fin whales and vice versa. Risk to both species may be ameliorated by creating a new route south of the northern Channel Islands and spreading traffic between this new route and the existing route in the Santa Barbara Channel. Creating a longer route may reduce the overlap between shipping and other uses by concentrating shipping traffic. Blue whales are distributed more evenly across our study area than humpback and fin whales; thus, risk could not be ameliorated by concentrating shipping traffic in any of the routes we considered. Reducing ship-strike risk for blue whales may be necessary because our estimate of the potential number of strikes suggests that they are likely to exceed allowable levels of anthropogenic impacts established under U.S. laws.

Davison, PC, Checkley DM, Koslow JA, Barlow J.  2013.  Carbon export mediated by mesopelagic fishes in the northeast Pacific Ocean. Progress in Oceanography. 116:14-30.   10.1016/j.pocean.2013.05.013   AbstractWebsite

The role of fishes in the global carbon cycle is poorly known and often neglected. We show that the biomass of mesopelagic fishes off the continental USA west to longitude 141 degrees W is positively related to annual net primary productivity, and averages 17 g m(-2). We estimate the export of carbon out of the epipelagic ocean mediated by mesopelagic fishes ("fish-mediated export"; FME) with individual-based metabolic modeling using the catch from 77 mesopelagic trawls distributed over the study area. FME was 15-17% (22-24 mg C m(-2) d(-1)) of the total carbon exported in the study area (144 mg C m(-2) d(-1)), as estimated from satellite data. FME varies spatially in both magnitude and relative importance. Although the magnitude of FME increases with increasing total export, the ratio of FME to total export decreases. FME exceeds 40% of the total carbon export in the oligotrophic North Pacific Subtropical Gyre, but forms <10% of the total export in the most productive waters of the California Current. Because the daytime residence depth of these fishes is below the depths where most remineralization of sinking particles occurs, FME is approximately equal to the passive transport at a depth of 400 m. The active transport of carbon by mesopelagic fishes and zooplankton is similar in magnitude to the gap between estimates of carbon export obtained with sediment traps and by other methods. FME should be considered in models of the global carbon cycle. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Baumann-Pickering, S, M. Yack T, Barlow J, Wiggins SM, Hildebrand JA.  2013.  Baird's beaked whale echolocation signals. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 133:4321-4331.   10.1121/1.4804316   AbstractWebsite

Echolocation signals from Baird's beaked whales were recorded during visual and acoustic shipboard surveys of cetaceans in the California Current ecosystem and with autonomous, long-term recorders in the Southern California Bight. The preliminary measurement of the visually validated Baird's beaked whale echolocation signals from towed array data were used as a basis for identifying Baird's signals in the autonomous recorder data. Two distinct signal types were found, one being a beaked whale-like frequency modulated (FM) pulse, the other being a dolphin-like broadband click. The median FM inter-pulse interval was 230 ms. Both signal types showed a consistent multi-peak structure in their spectra with peaks at ∼9, 16, 25, and 40 kHz. Depending on signal type, as well as recording aspect and distance to the hydrophone, these peaks varied in relative amplitude. The description of Baird's echolocation signals will allow for studies of their distribution and abundance using towed array data without associated visual sightings and from autonomous seafloor hydrophones.

Baird, RW, Oleson EM, Barlow J, Ligon AD, Gorgone AM, Mahaffy SD.  2013.  Evidence of an island-associated population of false killer whales (Pseudorca crassidens) in the northwestern Hawaiian islands. Pacific Science. 67:513-521.   10.2984/67.4.2   AbstractWebsite

Two populations of false killer whales, Pseudorca crassidens, are recognized from Hawaiian waters: the Hawaiian insular population, an island-associated population found around the main Hawaiian Islands; and the Hawai'i pelagic population, found in offshore waters. This species has not been previously documented near the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. During a 2010 large-vessel survey throughout the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) surrounding the Hawaiian Islands, false killer whales from 11 encounters were individually photo-identified, and photos were compared among encounters and with a catalog of false killer whales from the main Hawaiian Islands. Individuals from three of the encounters, all in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands within the eastern part of the Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument, were the only ones documented that matched with false killer whales previously seen around the main Hawaiian Islands, and the matches were to individuals documented off Kaua'i in 2008 that were of unknown population membership. Two individuals from one of these three 2010 encounters were instrumented with satellite tags attached to dorsal fins, and their movements were documented over 4.6 and 52 days. Movements of the tagged individuals ranged from French Frigate Shoals to Middle Bank (between Nihoa and Ni'ihau) and included shallow nearshore waters and deep waters to 147 km from land. Combined, the photo-identification and satellite-tagging results suggest that there is a second island-associated population of this species in Hawai'i that primarily uses the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, with a range that overlaps with that of the main Hawaiian Islands insular population.

Barlow, J, Tyack PL, Johnson MP, Baird RW, Schorr GS, Andrews RD, de Soto NA.  2013.  Trackline and point detection probabilities for acoustic surveys of Cuvier's and Blainville's beaked whales. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 134:2486-2496.   10.1121/1.4816573   AbstractWebsite

Acoustic survey methods can be used to estimate density and abundance using sounds produced by cetaceans and detected using hydrophones if the probability of detection can be estimated. For passive acoustic surveys, probability of detection at zero horizontal distance from a sensor, commonly called g(0), depends on the temporal patterns of vocalizations. Methods to estimate g(0) are developed based on the assumption that a beaked whale will be detected if it is producing regular echolocation clicks directly under or above a hydrophone. Data from acoustic recording tags placed on two species of beaked whales (Cuvier's beaked whale-Ziphius cavirostris and Blainville's beaked whale-Mesoplodon densirostris) are used to directly estimate the percentage of time they produce echolocation clicks. A model of vocal behavior for these species as a function of their diving behavior is applied to other types of dive data (from time-depth recorders and time-depth-transmitting satellite tags) to indirectly determine g(0) in other locations for low ambient noise conditions. Estimates of g(0) for a single instant in time are 0.28 [standard deviation (s.d.) = 0.05] for Cuvier's beaked whale and 0.19 (s.d. = 0.01) for Blainville's beaked whale.

Rankin, S, Archer F, Barlow J.  2013.  Vocal activity of tropical dolphins is inhibited by the presence of killer whales, Orcinus orca. Marine Mammal Science. 29:679-690.   10.1111/j.1748-7692.2012.00613.x   AbstractWebsite

Research has suggested killer whale (Orcinus orca) predation may affect cetacean vocal behavior; however, few data exist to test this hypothesis. Data collected during 40,976km of visual and acoustic shipboard surveys in the tropical Pacific Ocean, including 1,232 detections of 13 species, were examined to determine if changes in dolphin vocal activity could be attributed to the presence of killer whales. Generalized linear models and Random Forest analyses were used to test the hypothesis that dolphin vocal activity was related to the distance and time to the nearest killer whale sighting. Both results show that dolphin vocalizations were inversely correlated with the temporal proximity of killer whales (P<0.05). Despite the relative rarity of killer whales in the tropics, they appear to influence vocal behavior of nearby dolphin schools. This disruption in communication may not significantly impact interactions necessary for survival in tropical waters where killer whale density is low. However, in temperate climates, where increased productivity supports a greater abundance of killer whales, this interruption in communication may have a greater impact. The lower incidence of whistling dolphins in temperate waters may be related to the greater abundance of killer whales in these areas.

Barlow, J.  2012.  Passive Acoustic Monitoring of Cetaceans. Marine Mammal Science. 28:782-784. Abstract