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Cleaves, HJ, Chalmers JH, Lazcano A, Miller SL, Bada JL.  2008.  A reassessment of prebiotic organic synthesis in neutral planetary atmospheres. Origins of Life and Evolution of Biospheres. 38:105-115.   10.1007/s11084-007-9120-3   AbstractWebsite

The action of an electric discharge on reduced gas mixtures such as H(2)O, CH(4) and NH(3) (or N(2)) results in the production of several biologically important organic compounds including amino acids. However, it is now generally held that the early Earth's atmosphere was likely not reducing, but was dominated by N(2) and CO(2). The synthesis of organic compounds by the action of electric discharges on neutral gas mixtures has been shown to be much less efficient. We show here that contrary to previous reports, significant amounts of amino acids are produced from neutral gas mixtures. The low yields previously reported appear to be the outcome of oxidation of the organic compounds during hydrolytic workup by nitrite and nitrate produced in the reactions. The yield of amino acids is greatly increased when oxidation inhibitors, such as ferrous iron, are added prior to hydrolysis. Organic synthesis from neutral atmospheres may have depended on the oceanic availability of oxidation inhibitors as well as on the nature of the primitive atmosphere itself. The results reported here suggest that endogenous synthesis from neutral atmospheres may be more important than previously thought.

Kminek, G, Bada JL.  2006.  The effect of ionizing radiation on the preservation of amino acids on Mars. Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 245:1-5.   10.1016/j.epsl.2006.03.008   AbstractWebsite

Amino acids are excellent biomarkers in the search for life on Mars because they are essential for biology as we know it and they are robust enough to survive for billions of years in the cold and dry Martian environment. However, amino acids and other organic compounds on Mars are exposed to the ionizing radiation from space and from the decay of radionuclides. This process and its role in the preservation of organic compounds has not been adequately addressed in the past. Based on measured radiolysis constants of amino acids and radiation dose estimates for Mars we show that the detection of an amino acid signature derived from an early Martian biosphere is not limited by its radiolytic decomposition as long as the amino acids are shielded adequately from space radiation. This indicates clearly the need to access the Martian subsurface in the search for molecular traces of an extinct Martian biosphere. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Bada, JL, Bigham C, Miller SL.  1994.  Impact Melting of Frozen Oceans on the Early Earth - Implications for the Origin of Life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 91:1248-1250.   10.1073/pnas.91.4.1248   AbstractWebsite

Without sufficient greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, the early Earth would have become a permanently frozen planet because the young Sun was less luminous than it is today. Several resolutions to this faint young Sun-frozen Earth paradox have been proposed, with an atmosphere rich in CO2 being the one generally favored. However, these models assume that there were no mechanisms for melting a once frozen ocean. Here we show that bolide impacts between about 3.6 and 4.0 billion years ago could have episodically melted an ice-covered early ocean. Thaw-freeze cycles associated with bolide impacts could have been important for the initiation of abiotic reactions that gave rise to the first living organisms.