Publications

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2009
Pereto, J, Bada JL, Lazcano A.  2009.  Charles Darwin and the Origin of Life. Origins of Life and Evolution of Biospheres. 39:395-406.   10.1007/s11084-009-9172-7   AbstractWebsite

When Charles Darwin published The Origin of Species 150 years ago he consciously avoided discussing the origin of life. However, analysis of some other texts written by Darwin, and of the correspondence he exchanged with friends and colleagues demonstrates that he took for granted the possibility of a natural emergence of the first life forms. As shown by notes from the pages he excised from his private notebooks, as early as 1837 Darwin was convinced that "the intimate relation of Life with laws of chemical combination, & the universality of latter render spontaneous generation not improbable". Like many of his contemporaries, Darwin rejected the idea that putrefaction of preexisting organic compounds could lead to the appearance of organisms. Although he favored the possibility that life could appear by natural processes from simple inorganic compounds, his reluctance to discuss the issue resulted from his recognition that at the time it was possible to undertake the experimental study of the emergence of life.

Cleaves, HJ, Aubrey AD, Bada JL.  2009.  An Evaluation of the Critical Parameters for Abiotic Peptide Synthesis in Submarine Hydrothermal Systems. Origins of Life and Evolution of Biospheres. 39:109-126.   10.1007/s11084-008-9154-1   AbstractWebsite

It has been proposed that oligopeptides may be formed in submarine hydrothermal systems (SHSs). Oligopeptides have been synthesized previously under simulated SHS conditions which are likely geochemically implausible. We have herein investigated the oligomerization of glycine under SHS-like conditions with respect to the limitations imposed by starting amino acid concentration, heating time, and temperature. When 10(-1) M glycine solutions were heated at 250A degrees C for < 20 min glycine oligomers up to tetramers and diketopiperazine (DKP) were detectable. At 200A degrees C, less oligomerization was noted. Peptides beyond glycylglycine (gly(2)) and DKP were not detected below 150A degrees C. At 10(-2) M initial glycine concentration and below, only gly(2), DKP, and gly(3) were detected, and then only above 200A degrees C at < 20 min reaction time. Gly(3) was undetectable at longer reaction times. The major parameters limiting peptide synthesis in SHSs appear to be concentration, time, and temperature. Given the expected low concentrations of amino acids, the long residence times and range of temperatures in SHSs, it is unlikely that SHS environments were robust sources of even simple peptides. Possible unexplored solutions to the problems presented here are also discussed.

2004
Bada, JL.  2004.  How life began on Earth: a status report. Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 226:1-15.   10.1016/j.epsl.2004.07.036   AbstractWebsite

There are two fundamental requirements for life as we know it, liquid water and organic polymers, such as nucleic acids and proteins. Water provides the medium for chemical reactions and the polymers carry out the central biological functions of replication and catalysis. During the accretionary phase of the Earth, high surface temperatures would have made the presence of liquid water and an extensive organic carbon reservoir unlikely. As the Earth's surface cooled, water and simple organic compounds, derived from a variety of sources, would have begun to accumulate. This set the stage for the process of chemical evolution to begin in which one of the central facets was the synthesis of biologically important polymers, some of which had a variety of simple catalytic functions. Increasingly complex macromolecules were produced and eventually molecules with the ability to catalyze their own imperfect replication appeared. Thus began the processes of multiplication, heredity and variation, and this marked the point of both the origin of life and evolution. Once simple self-replicating entities originated, they evolved first into the RNA World and eventually to the DNA/Protein World, which had all the attributes of modern biology. If the basic components water and organic polymers were, or are, present on other bodies in our solar system and beyond, it is reasonable to assume that a similar series of steps that gave rise of life on Earth could occur elsewhere. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.