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Bada, JL, Ehrenfreund P, Grunthaner F, Blaney D, Coleman M, Farrington A, Yen A, Mathies R, Amudson R, Quinn R, Zent A, Ride S, Barron L, Botta O, Clark B, Glavin D, Hofmann B, Josset JL, Rettberg P, Robert F, Sephton M.  2008.  Urey: Mars Organic and Oxidant Detector. Space Science Reviews. 135:269-279.   10.1007/s11214-007-9213-3   AbstractWebsite

One of the fundamental challenges facing the scientific community as we enter this new century of Mars research is to understand, in a rigorous manner, the biotic potential both past and present of this outermost terrestrial-like planet in our solar system. Urey: Mars Organic and Oxidant Detector has been selected for the Pasteur payload of the European Space Agency's (ESA's) ExoMars rover mission and is considered a fundamental instrument to achieve the mission's scientific objectives. The instrument is named Urey in recognition of Harold Clayton Urey's seminal contributions to cosmochemistry, geochemistry, and the study of the origin of life. The overall goal of Urey is to search for organic compounds directly in the regolith of Mars and to assess their origin. Urey will perform a groundbreaking investigation of the Martian environment that will involve searching for organic compounds indicative of life and prebiotic chemistry at a sensitivity many orders of magnitude greater than Viking or other in situ organic detection systems. Urey will perform the first in situ search for key classes of organic molecules using state-of-the-art analytical methods that provide part-per-trillion sensitivity. It will ascertain whether any of these molecules are abiotic or biotic in origin and will evaluate the survival potential of organic compounds in the environment using state-of-the-art chemoresistor oxidant sensors.

Aubrey, AD, Chalmers JH, Bada JL, Grunthaner FJ, Amashukeli X, Willis P, Skelley AM, Mathies RA, Quinn RC, Zent AP, Ehrenfreund P, Amundson R, Glavin DP, Botta O, Barron L, Blaney DL, Clark BC, Coleman M, Hofmann BA, Josset JL, Rettberg P, Ride S, Robert F, Sephton MA, Yen A.  2008.  The Urey instrument: An advanced in situ organic and oxidant detector for Mars exploration. Astrobiology. 8:583-595.   10.1089/ast.2007.0169   AbstractWebsite

The Urey organic and oxidant detector consists of a suite of instruments designed to search for several classes of organic molecules in the martian regolith and ascertain whether these compounds were produced by biotic or abiotic processes using chirality measurements. These experiments will also determine the chemical stability of organic molecules within the host regolith based on the presence and chemical reactivity of surface and atmospheric oxidants. Urey has been selected for the Pasteur payload on the European Space Agency's (ESA's) upcoming 2013 ExoMars rover mission. The diverse and effective capabilities of Urey make it an integral part of the payload and will help to achieve a large portion of the mission's primary scientific objective: "to search for signs of past and present life on Mars." This instrument is named in honor of Harold Urey for his seminal contributions to the fields of cosmochemistry and the origin of life.

Levy, M, Miller SL, Brinton K, Bada JL.  2000.  Prebiotic synthesis of adenine and amino acids under Europa-like conditions. Icarus. 145:609-613.   10.1006/icar.2000.6365   AbstractWebsite

In order to simulate prebiotic synthetic processes on Europa and other ice-covered planets and satellites, we have investigated the prebiotic synthesis of organic compounds from dilute solutions of NH(4)CN frozen for 25 years at -20 and -78 degrees C. In addition, the aqueous products of spark discharge reactions from a reducing atmosphere were frozen for 5 years at -20 degrees C. We find that both adenine and guanine, as well as a simple set of amino acids dominated by glycine, are produced in substantial yields under these conditions, These results indicate that some of the key components necessary for the origin of life may have been available on Europa throughout its history and suggest that the circumstellar zone where life might arise may be wider than previously thought. (C) 2000 Academic Press.

Brinton, KLF, Bada JL.  1996.  A reexamination of amino acids in lunar soils: Implications for the survival of exogenous organic material during impact delivery. Geochimica Et Cosmochimica Acta. 60:349-354.   10.1016/0016-7037(95)00404-1   AbstractWebsite

Using a sensitive high performance liquid chromatography technique, we have analyzed both the hot water extract and the acid hydrolyzed hot water extract of lunar soil collected during the Apollo 17 mission. Both free amino acids and those derived from acid labile precursors are present at a level of roughly 15 ppb. Based on the D/L amino acid ratios, the free alanine and aspartic acid observed in the hot water extract can be entirely attributed to terrestrial biogenic contamination. However, in the acid labile fraction, precursors which yield amino acids are apparently present in the lunar soil. The amino acid distribution suggests that the precursor is probably solar wind implanted HCN. We have evaluated our results with regard to the meteoritic input of intact organic compounds to the moon based on an upper limit of less than or equal to 0.3 ppb for alpha-aminoisobutyric acid, a non-protein amino acid which does not generally occur in terrestrial organisms and which is not a major amino acid produced from HCN, but which is a predominant amino acid in many carbonaceous chondrites. We find that the survival of exogenous organic compounds during lunar impact is less than or equal to 0.8%. This result represents an example of minimum organic impact survivability. This is an important first step toward a better understanding of similar processes on Earth and on Mars, and their possible contribution to the budget of prebiotic organic compounds on the primitive Earth.