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1990
Chen, RF, Bada JL.  1990.  A Laser-Based Fluorometry System for Investigations of Seawater and Porewater Fluorescence. Marine Chemistry. 31:219-230.   10.1016/s0304-4203(05)80014-3   AbstractWebsite

A highly sensitive laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) system has been developed to study the fluorescence of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the marine environment. The LIF detector has a detection limit of approximately 10 attomoles (10x10(-18) moles) of pterin and eliminates internal quenching in highly fluorescent samples such as anoxic porewaters encountered when using conventional fluorometry. LIF analysis is rapid, reproducible, and uses only 100 mu-l of a sample. This small size requirement permits fluorescence analyses of samples often available only in limited amounts, such as pore-waters, hydrothermal vent waters, and rainwaters. In addition, the LIF detection system may greatly simplify extraction and separation procedures required to characterize the fluorescent components of DOC.