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Beem, LH, Tulaczyk SM, King MA, Bougamont M, Fricker HA, Christoffersen P.  2014.  Variable deceleration of Whillans Ice Stream, West Antarctica. Journal of Geophysical Research-Earth Surface. 119:212-224.   10.1002/2013jf002958   AbstractWebsite

The Whillans Ice Stream Ice Plain (WIP) has been slowing since at least 1963. Prior constraints on this slowdown were consistent with a constant long-term deceleration rate. New observations of ice velocity from 11 continuous and 3 seasonal GPS sites indicate the deceleration rate varies through time including on interannual time scales. Between 2009 and 2012 WIP decelerated at a rate (6.1 to 10.9 2 m/yr(2)) that was double the multidecadal average (3.0 to 5.6 2 m/yr(2)). To identify the causes of slowdown, we used new and prior velocity estimates to constrain longitudinal and transverse force budget models as well as a higher-order inverse model. All model results support the conclusion that the observed deceleration of WIP is caused by an increase in basal resistance to motion at a rate of 10 to 40 Pa/yr. Subglacial processes that may be responsible for strengthening the ice stream bed include basal freeze on, changes in subglacial hydrology, or increases in the area of resistant basal substrate through differential erosion. The observed variability in WIP deceleration rate suggests that dynamics in subglacial hydrology, plausibly driven by basal freeze on and/or activity of subglacial lakes, plays a key role in modulating basal resistance to ice motion in the region.

Fricker, HA, Allison I, Craven M, Hyland G, Ruddell A, Young N, Coleman R, King M, Krebs K, Popov S.  2002.  Redefinition of the Amery Ice Shelf, East Antarctica, grounding zone. Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth. 107   10.1029/2001jb000383   AbstractWebsite

[1] New evidence is presented which shows that the Amery Ice Shelf, East Antarctica, extends similar to240 km upstream of the previously reported position. We combine a digital elevation model of the Amery Ice Shelf created from ERS-1 satellite radar altimetry with measured ice thicknesses and a simple density model in a hydrostatic (buoyancy) calculation to map the extent of the floating ice. This reveals that the ice is floating as far south as 73.2degreesS. The result is confirmed by static GPS measurements collected during three consecutive field campaigns on the Amery Ice Shelf where the vertical component of the GPS shows a clear tidal signal at 72.98degreesS. Other evidence for the grounding zone position comes from an analysis of satellite imagery, mass flux calculations, and ice radar data. The southward extension of the grounding line substantially alters the shape and dimensions of the ocean cavity beneath the ice shelf, which has implications for modeling studies of sub-ice shelf processes, such as basal melting and freezing, ocean circulation, and tides. The new grounding line position will also improve geophysical studies, where the computation of ocean tidal loading corrections is important for postglacial rebound estimates and correction of satellite altimetry measurements within the region.