Publications

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2018
Calmer, R, Roberts GC, Preissler J, Sanchez KJ, Derrien S, O'Dowd C.  2018.  Vertical wind velocity measurements using a five-hole probe with remotely piloted aircraft to study aerosol-cloud interactions. Atmospheric Measurement Techniques. 11:2583-2599.   10.5194/amt-11-2583-2018   AbstractWebsite

The importance of vertical wind velocities (in particular positive vertical wind velocities or updrafts) in atmospheric science has motivated the need to deploy multi-hole probes developed for manned aircraft in small remotely piloted aircraft (RPA). In atmospheric research, lightweight RPAs ( < 2.5 kg) are now able to accurately measure atmospheric wind vectors, even in a cloud, which provides essential observing tools for understanding aerosol-cloud interactions. The European project BACCHUS (impact of Biogenic versus Anthropogenic emissions on Clouds and Climate: towards a Holistic UnderStanding) focuses on these specific interactions. In particular, vertical wind velocity at cloud base is a key parameter for studying aerosol-cloud interactions. To measure the three components of wind, a RPA is equipped with a five-hole probe, pressure sensors, and an inertial navigation system (INS). The five-hole probe is calibrated on a multi-axis platform, and the probe-INS system is validated in a wind tunnel. Once mounted on a RPA, power spectral density (PSD) functions and turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) derived from the five-hole probe are compared with sonic anemometers on a meteorological mast. During a BACCHUS field campaign at Mace Head Atmospheric Research Station (Ireland), a fleet of RPAs was deployed to profile the atmosphere and complement ground-based and satellite observations of physical and chemical properties of aerosols, clouds, and meteorological state parameters. The five-hole probe was flown on straight-and-level legs to measure vertical wind velocities within clouds. The vertical velocity measurements from the RPA are validated with vertical velocities derived from a ground-based cloud radar by showing that both measurements yield model-simulated cloud droplet number concentrations within 10 %. The updraft velocity distributions illustrate distinct relationships between vertical cloud fields in different meteorological conditions.

2010
Crumeyrolle, S, Manninen HE, Sellegri K, Roberts G, Gomes L, Kulmala M, Weigel R, Laj P, Schwarzenboeck A.  2010.  New particle formation events measured on board the ATR-42 aircraft during the EUCAARI campaign. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. 10:6721-6735.   10.5194/acp-10-6721-2010   AbstractWebsite

Aerosol properties were studied during an intensive airborne measurement campaign that took place at Rotterdam in Netherlands in May 2008 within the framework of the European Aerosol Cloud Climate and Air Quality Interactions project (EUCAARI). The objective of this study is to illustrate seven events of new particle formation (NPF) observed with two Condensation Particle Counters (CPCs) operated on board the ATR-42 research aircraft in airsectors around Rotterdam, and to provide information on the spatial extent of the new particle formation phenomenon based on 1-s resolution measurements of ultra-fine particle (in the size range 3-10 nm diameter, denoted N(3-10) hereafter) concentrations. The results show that particle production occurred under the influence of different air mass origins, at different day times and over the North Sea as well as over the continent. The number concentration of freshly nucleated particles (N(3-10)) varied between 5000 and 100 000 cm(-3) within the boundary layer (BL). Furthermore the vertical extension for all nucleation events observed on the ATR-42 never exceeded the upper limit of the BL. The horizontal extent of N(3-10) could not be delimited due to inflexible flight plans which could not be modified to accommodate real-time results. However, the NPF events were observed over geographically large areas; typically the horizontal extension was about 100 km and larger.