Publications

Export 2 results:
Sort by: Author Title Type [ Year  (Desc)]
2018
Calmer, R, Roberts GC, Preissler J, Sanchez KJ, Derrien S, O'Dowd C.  2018.  Vertical wind velocity measurements using a five-hole probe with remotely piloted aircraft to study aerosol-cloud interactions. Atmospheric Measurement Techniques. 11:2583-2599.   10.5194/amt-11-2583-2018   AbstractWebsite

The importance of vertical wind velocities (in particular positive vertical wind velocities or updrafts) in atmospheric science has motivated the need to deploy multi-hole probes developed for manned aircraft in small remotely piloted aircraft (RPA). In atmospheric research, lightweight RPAs ( < 2.5 kg) are now able to accurately measure atmospheric wind vectors, even in a cloud, which provides essential observing tools for understanding aerosol-cloud interactions. The European project BACCHUS (impact of Biogenic versus Anthropogenic emissions on Clouds and Climate: towards a Holistic UnderStanding) focuses on these specific interactions. In particular, vertical wind velocity at cloud base is a key parameter for studying aerosol-cloud interactions. To measure the three components of wind, a RPA is equipped with a five-hole probe, pressure sensors, and an inertial navigation system (INS). The five-hole probe is calibrated on a multi-axis platform, and the probe-INS system is validated in a wind tunnel. Once mounted on a RPA, power spectral density (PSD) functions and turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) derived from the five-hole probe are compared with sonic anemometers on a meteorological mast. During a BACCHUS field campaign at Mace Head Atmospheric Research Station (Ireland), a fleet of RPAs was deployed to profile the atmosphere and complement ground-based and satellite observations of physical and chemical properties of aerosols, clouds, and meteorological state parameters. The five-hole probe was flown on straight-and-level legs to measure vertical wind velocities within clouds. The vertical velocity measurements from the RPA are validated with vertical velocities derived from a ground-based cloud radar by showing that both measurements yield model-simulated cloud droplet number concentrations within 10 %. The updraft velocity distributions illustrate distinct relationships between vertical cloud fields in different meteorological conditions.

Crispel, P, Roberts G.  2018.  All-sky photogrammetry techniques to georeference a cloud field. Atmospheric Measurement Techniques. 11:593-609.   10.5194/amt-11-593-2018   AbstractWebsite

In this study, we present a novel method of identifying and geolocalizing cloud field elements from a portable all-sky camera stereo network based on the ground and oriented towards zenith. The methodology is mainly based on stereophotogrammetry which is a 3-D reconstruction technique based on triangulation from corresponding stereo pixels in rectified images. In cases where clouds are horizontally separated, identifying individual positions is performed with segmentation techniques based on hue filtering and contour detection algorithms. Macroscopic cloud field characteristics such as cloud layer base heights and velocity fields are also deduced. In addition, the methodology is fitted to the context of measurement campaigns which impose simplicity of implementation, auto-calibration, and portability. Camera internal geometry models are achieved a priori in the laboratory and validated to ensure a certain accuracy in the peripheral parts of the all-sky image. Then, stereophotogrammetry with dense 3-D reconstruction is applied with cameras spaced 150m apart for two validation cases. The first validation case is carried out with cumulus clouds having a cloud base height at 1500ma. g.l. The second validation case is carried out with two cloud layers: a cumulus fractus layer with a base height at 1000ma. g.l. and an altocumulus stratiformis layer with a base height of 2300ma. g.l. Velocity fields at cloud base are computed by tracking image rectangular patterns through successive shots. The height uncertainty is estimated by comparison with a Vaisala CL31 ceilometer located on the site. The uncertainty on the horizontal coordinates and on the velocity field are theoretically quantified by using the experimental uncertainties of the cloud base height and camera orientation. In the first cumulus case, segmentation of the image is performed to identify individuals clouds in the cloud field and determine the horizontal positions of the cloud centers.