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Russell, LM, Sorooshian A, Seinfeld JH, Albrecht BA, Nenes A, Ahlm L, Chen YC, Coggon M, Craven JS, Flagan RC, Frossard AA, Jonsson H, Jung E, Lin JJ, Metcalf AR, Modini R, Mulmenstadt J, Roberts GC, Shingler T, Song S, Wang Z, Wonaschutz A.  2013.  Eastern Pacific emitted aerosol cloud experiment. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society. 94:709-+.   10.1175/bams-d-12-00015.1   AbstractWebsite

Aerosol-cloud-radiation interactions are widely held to be the largest single source of uncertainty in climate model projections of future radiative forcing due to increasing anthropogenic emissions. The underlying causes of this uncertainty among modeled predictions of climate are the gaps in our fundamental understanding of cloud processes. There has been significant progress with both observations and models in addressing these important questions but quantifying them correctly is nontrivial, thus limiting our ability to represent them in global climate models. The Eastern Pacific Emitted Aerosol Cloud Experiment (E-PEACE) 2011 was a targeted aircraft campaign with embedded modeling studies, using the Center for Interdisciplinary Remotely-Piloted Aircraft Studies (CIRPAS) Twin Otter aircraft and the research vessel Point Sur in July and August 2011 off the central coast of California, with a full payload of instruments to measure particle and cloud number, mass, composition, and water uptake distributions. E-PEACE used three emitted particle sources to separate particle-induced feedbacks from dynamical variability, namely 1) shipboard smoke-generated particles with 0.05-1-mu m diameters (which produced tracks measured by satellite and had drop composition characteristic of organic smoke), 2) combustion particles from container ships with 0.05-0.2-mu m diameters (which were measured in a variety of conditions with droplets containing both organic and sulfate components), and 3) aircraft-based milled salt particles with 3-5-mu m diameters (which showed enhanced drizzle rates in some clouds). The aircraft observations were consistent with past large-eddy simulations of deeper clouds in ship tracks and aerosol cloud parcel modeling of cloud drop number and composition, providing quantitative constraints on aerosol effects on warm-cloud microphysics.

Roberts, GC, Ramana MV, Corrigan C, Kim D, Ramanathan V.  2008.  Simultaneous observations of aerosol-cloud-albedo interactions with three stacked unmanned aerial vehicles. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 105:7370-7375.   10.1073/pnas.0710308105   AbstractWebsite

Aerosol impacts on climate change are still poorly understood, in part, because the few observations and methods for detecting their effects are not well established. For the first time, the enhancement in cloud albedo is directly measured on a cloud-by-cloud basis and linked to increasing aerosol concentrations by using multiple autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles to simultaneously observe the cloud microphysics, vertical aerosol distribution, and associated solar radiative fluxes. In the presence of long-range transport of dust and anthropogenic pollution, the trade cumuli have higher droplet concentrations and are on average brighter. Our observations suggest a higher sensitivity of radiative forcing by trade cumuli to increases in cloud droplet concentrations. than previously reported owing to a constrained droplet radius such that increases in droplet concentrations also increase cloud liquid water content. This aerosol-cloud forcing efficiency is as much as -60 W m(-2) per 100% percent cloud fraction for a doubling of droplet concentrations and associated increase of liquid water content. Finally, we develop a strategy for detecting aerosol-cloud interactions based on a nondimensional scaling analysis that relates the contribution of single clouds to albedo measurements and illustrates the significance of characterizing cloud morphology in resolving radiometric measurements. This study demonstrates that aerosol-cloud-albedo interactions can be directly observed by simultaneous observations below, in, and above the clouds.

Formenti, P, Andreae MO, Lange L, Roberts G, Cafmeyer J, Rajta I, Maenhaut W, Holben BN, Artaxo P, Lelieveld J.  2001.  Saharan dust in Brazil and Suriname during the Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA) - Cooperative LBA Regional Experiment (CLAIRE) in March 1998. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres. 106:14919-14934.   10.1029/2000jd900827   AbstractWebsite

Advection of Saharan dust was observed via chemical and optical measurements during March 1998 in Brazil and Suriname during the Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA)-Cooperative LBA Airborne Regional Experiment (CLAIRE)-98 experiment. In Brazil the dust outbreak produced an increase of a factor of 3 in the daily mean mass concentration (up to 26 +/- 7 mug m(-3)) of particles smaller than 10 mum equivalent aerodynamic diameter (EAD), and in the daily mean aerosol particle scattering coefficient sigma (N) (up to 26 +/- 8 Mm(-1) STP, ambient humidity). Background levels of aerosol scattering (ambient) were sigma (s) similar to 10 Mm(-1). The effect of dust advection was evident for all major crustal elements (Al, Si, Ca, Ti, Mn, and Fe), as well as the sea-salt elements (Na, Cl, and S), as the dust layer was transported at low altitude (below 800 hPa). Coarse P and organic carbon (OC) concentrations were not influenced by the occurrence of dust, and were mainly emitted by the rain forest. The dry scattering mass efficiency of dust (particles smaller than 10 mum EAD) was estimated to be between 0.65 (+/- 0.06) and 0.89 (+/- 0.08) m(2) g(-1). Airborne profiles of aerosol scattering showed two distinct types of vertical structure in the dust layer over Suriname, either vertically uniform (15, 26 March), or plume-like (25 March). Dust layers extended generally up to 700 hPa, while scattering layers occasionally encountered at higher altitudes resulted from smoke emitted by biomass burning in Venezuela and Colombia, Observations in South America were supported by measurements in Israel and Tenerife (Canary Islands), where the dust outbreaks were also detected.