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Kettle, AJ, Andreae MO, Amouroux D, Andreae TW, Bates TS, Berresheim H, Bingemer H, Boniforti R, Curran MAJ, DiTullio GR, Helas G, Jones GB, Keller MD, Kiene RP, Leck C, Levasseur M, Malin G, Maspero M, Matrai P, McTaggart AR, Mihalopoulos N, Nguyen BC, Novo A, Putaud JP, Rapsomanikis S, Roberts G, Schebeske G, Sharma S, Simo R, Staubes R, Turner S, Uher G.  1999.  A global database of sea surface dimethylsulfide (DMS) measurements and a procedure to predict sea surface DMS as a function of latitude, longitude, and month. Global Biogeochemical Cycles. 13:399-444.   10.1029/1999gb900004   AbstractWebsite

A database of 15,617 point measurements of dimethylsulfide (DMS) in surface waters along with lesser amounts of data for aqueous and particulate dimethylsulfoniopropionate concentration, chlorophyll concentration, sea surface salinity and temperature, and wind speed has been assembled. The database was processed to create a series of climatological annual and monthly 1 degrees x1 degrees latitude-longitude squares of data. The results were compared to published fields of geophysical and biological parameters. No significant correlation was found between DMS and these parameters, and no simple algorithm could be found to create monthly fields of sea surface DMS concentration based on these parameters. Instead, an annual map of sea surface DMS was produced using an algorithm similar to that employed by Conkright et al. [1994]. In this approach, a first-guess field of DMS sea surface concentration measurements is created and then a correction to this field is generated based on actual measurements. Monthly sea surface grids of DMS were obtained using a similar scheme, but the sparsity of DMS measurements made the method difficult to implement. A scheme was used which projected actual data into months of the year where no data were otherwise present.

Kubatova, A, Vermeylen R, Claeys M, Cafmeyer J, Maenhaut W, Roberts G, Artaxo P.  2000.  Carbonaceous aerosol characterization in the Amazon basin, Brazil: novel dicarboxylic acids and related compounds. Atmospheric Environment. 34:5037-5051.   10.1016/s1352-2310(00)00320-4   AbstractWebsite

High-resolution capillary gas chromatography (GC) and GC/mass spectrometry (MS) were employed for the quantitative determination of dichloromethane-extractable organic compounds in total and size-fractionated aerosol samples which were collected in the Amazon basin, Brazil, during the wet season, as part of the LBA-CLAIRE-98 experiment. Special emphasis was placed on the characterization and identification of several novel unknown dicarboxylic acids and related oxidative degradation products. This class of acidic products was enriched in the fine size fraction, suggesting that they were secondary organic aerosol products formed by gas-to-particle conversion. Some of the unknowns contributed more to the class of dicarboxylic acids than the major known compound, nonadioic acid (azelaic acid). The same unknowns were also observed in urban aerosol samples collected on hot summer days in Gent, Belgium. For the characterization and structure elucidation of the unknowns, various types of derivatizations and Fractionation by solid-phase extraction were employed in combination with GC/MS. Four unknowns were identified. The most abundant were two derivatives of glutaric acid, 3-isopropyl pentanedioic acid and 3-acetyl pentanedioic acid. The other two identified unknowns were another oxo homologue, 3-acetyl hexanedioic acid, and, interestingly, 3-carboxy heptanedioic acid. To our knowledge, the occurrence of these four compounds in atmospheric aerosols has not yet been reported. The biogenic precursors of the novel identified compounds could not be pinpointed. but most likely include monoterpenes and fatty acids. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Kuhn, U, Ganzeveld L, Thielmann A, Dindorf T, Schebeske G, Welling M, Sciare J, Roberts G, Meixner FX, Kesselmeier J, Lelieveld J, Kolle O, Ciccioli P, Lloyd J, Trentmann J, Artaxo P, Andreae MO.  2010.  Impact of Manaus City on the Amazon Green Ocean atmosphere: ozone production, precursor sensitivity and aerosol load. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. 10:9251-9282.   10.5194/acp-10-9251-2010   AbstractWebsite

As a contribution to the Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia - Cooperative LBA Airborne Regional Experiment (LBA-CLAIRE-2001) field campaign in the heart of the Amazon Basin, we analyzed the temporal and spatial dynamics of the urban plume of Manaus City during the wet-to-dry season transition period in July 2001. During the flights, we performed vertical stacks of crosswind transects in the urban outflow downwind of Manaus City, measuring a comprehensive set of trace constituents including O-3, NO, NO2, CO, VOC, CO2, and H2O. Aerosol loads were characterized by concentrations of total aerosol number (CN) and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), and by light scattering properties. Measurements over pristine rainforest areas during the campaign showed low levels of pollution from biomass burning or industrial emissions, representative of wet season background conditions. The urban plume of Manaus City was found to be joined by plumes from power plants south of the city, all showing evidence of very strong photochemical ozone formation. One episode is discussed in detail, where a threefold increase in ozone mixing ratios within the atmospheric boundary layer occurred within a 100 km travel distance downwind of Manaus. Observation-based estimates of the ozone production rates in the plume reached 15 ppb h(-1). Within the plume core, aerosol concentrations were strongly enhanced, with Delta CN/Delta CO ratios about one order of magnitude higher than observed in Amazon biomass burning plumes. Delta CN/Delta CO ratios tended to decrease with increasing transport time, indicative of a significant reduction in particle number by coagulation, and without substantial new particle nucleation occurring within the time/space observed. While in the background atmosphere a large fraction of the total particle number served as CCN (about 60-80% at 0.6% supersaturation), the CCN/CN ratios within the plume indicated that only a small fraction (16 +/- 12 %) of the plume particles were CCN. The fresh plume aerosols showed relatively weak light scattering efficiency. The CO-normalized CCN concentrations and light scattering coefficients increased with plume age in most cases, suggesting particle growth by condensation of soluble organic or inorganic species. We used a Single Column Chemistry and Transport Model (SCM) to infer the urban pollution emission fluxes of Manaus City, implying observed mixing ratios of CO, NOx and VOC. The model can reproduce the temporal/spatial distribution of ozone enhancements in the Manaus plume, both with and without accounting for the distinct (high NOx) contribution by the power plants; this way examining the sensitivity of ozone production to changes in the emission rates of NOx. The VOC reactivity in the Manaus region was dominated by a high burden of biogenic isoprene from the background rainforest atmosphere, and therefore NOx control is assumed to be the most effective ozone abatement strategy. Both observations and models show that the agglomeration of NOx emission sources, like power plants, in a well-arranged area can decrease the ozone production efficiency in the near field of the urban populated cores. But on the other hand remote areas downwind of the city then bear the brunt, being exposed to increased ozone production and N-deposition. The simulated maximum stomatal ozone uptake fluxes were 4 nmol m(-2) s(-1) close to Manaus, and decreased only to about 2 nmol m(-2) s(-1) within a travel distance >1500 km downwind from Manaus, clearly exceeding the critical threshold level for broadleaf trees. Likewise, the simulated N deposition close to Manaus was similar to 70 kg N ha(-1) a(-1) decreasing only to about 30 kg N ha(-1) a(-1) after three days of simulation.

Kulmala, M, Asmi A, Lappalainen HK, Baltensperger U, Brenguier JL, Facchini MC, Hansson HC, Hov O, O'Dowd CD, Poschl U et al..  2011.  General overview: European Integrated project on Aerosol Cloud Climate and Air Quality interactions (EUCAARI) - integrating aerosol research from nano to global scales. Atmos Chem Phys. 11:13061-13143.   doi:10.5194/acp-11-13061-2011   Abstract

In this paper we describe and summarize the main achievements of the European Aerosol Cloud Climate and Air Quality Interactions project (EUCAARI). EUCAARI started on 1 January 2007 and ended on 31 December 2010 leaving a rich legacy including: (a) a comprehensive database with a year of observations of the physical, chemical and optical properties of aerosol particles over Europe, (b) comprehensive aerosol measurements in four developing countries, (c) a database of airborne measurements of aerosols and clouds over Europe during May 2008, (d) comprehensive modeling tools to study aerosol processes fron nano to global scale and their effects on climate and air quality. In addition a new Pan-European aerosol emissions inventory was developed and evaluated, a new cluster spectrometer was built and tested in the field and several new aerosol parameterizations and computations modules for chemical transport and global climate models were developed and evaluated. These achievements and related studies have substantially improved our understanding and reduced the uncertainties of aerosol radiative forcing and air quality-climate interactions. The EUCAARI results can be utilized in European and global environmental policy to assess the aerosol impacts and the corresponding abatement strategies.