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Amouroux, D, Roberts G, Rapsomanikis S, Andreae MO.  2002.  Biogenic gas (CH4, N2O, DMS) emission to the atmosphere from near-shore and shelf waters of the north-western Black Sea. Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science. 54:575-587.   10.1006/ecss.2000.0666   AbstractWebsite

The marine emissions of biogenic gases (CH4, N2O, DMS) were determined on the north-western shelf of the Black Sea in July 1995. Methane (CH,) saturation ratios (SR) averaged 930% (173-10 500%) and were inversely proportional to salinity. The mean nitrous oxide (N2O) SR was 111% (96-149%), which is similar to the values found in other coastal water masses, and did not present any significant variability as a function of salinity. Dimethyl sulphide (DMS) concentrations ranged between 2.96 and 11.9 nM and chlorophyll a-normalized DIMS concentrations were found to increase exponentially with salinity, illustrating the influence of plankton speciation. Coastal and shelf waters affected by riverine inputs, which represent 30% of the Black Sea surface area, contributed up to 53% of the CH4 flux during the summer period. Biogenic sulphur emissions, primarily as DMS, showed a strong gradient, increasing from open Black Sea waters to estuarine Danube waters. There was less variation in the flux densities of N2O for the different water masses. By extrapolating values obtained during summer 1995, upper limits for the emissions from the Black Sea to the atmosphere were estimated to be 6.7-11.7 Gmol yr(-1) of CH4, 0.45-0.75 Gmol yr(-1) of N2O and 0.30-0.80 Gmol yr(-1) of DMS, using two different air-sea gas exchange models. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Arndt, J, Sciare J, Mallet M, Roberts GC, Marchand N, Sartelet K, Sellegri K, Dulac F, Healy RM, Wenger JC.  2017.  Sources and mixing state of summertime background aerosol in the north-western Mediterranean basin. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. 17:6975-7001.   10.5194/acp-17-6975-2017   AbstractWebsite

An aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS) was employed to provide real-time single particle mixing state and thereby source information for aerosols impacting the western Mediterranean basin during the ChArMEx-ADRIMED and SAF-MED campaigns in summer 2013. The ATOFMS measurements were made at a ground-based remote site on the northern tip of Corsica. Twenty-seven distinct ATOFMS particle classes were identified and subsequently grouped into eight general categories: EC-rich (elemental carbon), K-rich, Na-rich, amines, OC-rich (organic carbon), V-rich, Fe-rich and Ca-rich particles. Mass concentrations were reconstructed for the ATOFMS particle classes and found to be in good agreement with other co-located quantitative measurements (PM1, black carbon (BC), organic carbon, sulfate mass and ammonium mass). Total ATOFMS reconstructed mass (PM2.5) accounted for 70-90% of measured PM10 mass and was comprised of regionally transported fossil fuel (EC-rich) and biomass burning (K-rich) particles. The accumulation of these transported particles was favoured by repeated and extended periods of air mass stagnation over the western Mediterranean during the sampling campaigns. The single particle mass spectra proved to be valuable source markers, allowing the identification of fossil fuel and biomass burning combustion sources, and was therefore highly complementary to quantitative measurements made by Particle into Liquid Sampler ion chromatography (PILS-IC) and an aerosol chemical speciation monitor (ACSM), which have demonstrated that PM1 and PM10 were comprised predominantly of sulfate, ammonium and OC. Good temporal agreement was observed between ATOFMS EC-rich and K-rich particle mass concentrations and combined mass concentrations of BC, sulfate, ammonium and low volatility oxygenated organic aerosol (LV-OOA). This combined information suggests that combustion of fossil fuels and biomass produced primary EC- and OC-containing particles, which then accumulated ammonium, sulfate and alkylamines during regional transport. Three other sources were also identified: local biomass burning, marine and shipping. Local combustion particles