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Carnevale, GF, McWilliams JC, Pomeau Y, Weiss JB, Young WR.  1992.  Rates, pathways, and end states of nonlinear evolution in decaying two‐dimensional turbulence: Scaling theory versus selective decay. Physics of Fluids. 4:1314-1316.   10.1063/1.858251   Abstract

A recently proposed scaling theory of two‐dimensional turbulent decay, based on the evolutionary pathway of successive mergers of coherent vortices, is used to predict the rate and end state of the evolution. These predictions differ from those based on the selective‐decay hypothesis and traditional ideas of spectrum evolution, and they are in substantially better agreement with numerical solutions at large Reynolds number.

Carnevale, GF, Orlandi P, Zhou Y, Kloosterziel RC.  2002.  Rotational suppression of Rayleigh-Taylor instability. Journal of Fluid Mechanics. 457:181-190.   10.1017/s0022112002007772   AbstractWebsite

It is demonstrated that the growth of the mixing zone generated by Rayleigh-Taylor instability can be greatly retarded by the application of rotation, at least for low Atwood number flows for which the Boussinesq approximation is valid. This result is analysed in terms of the effect of the Coriolis force on the vortex rings that propel the bubbles of fluid in the mixing zone.

Carnevale, GF, Holloway G.  1982.  Information decay and the predictability of turbulent flows. Journal of Fluid Mechanics. 116:115-121.   10.1017/s0022112082000391   AbstractWebsite

A measure of predictability that has many superior features compared to currently used measures is introduced. Through statistical theory it is demonstrated that in inviscid truncated flow this new predictability measure increases monotonically in time while all initial information about the system decays. Under the influence of forcing and viscosity the behaviour of this measure is shown always to satisfy intuitive expectations.

Carnevale, GF, Purini R, Orlandi P, Cavazza P.  1995.  Barotropic quasi-geostrophic f-plane flow over anisotropic topography. Journal of Fluid Mechanics. 285:329-347.   10.1017/s0022112095000565   AbstractWebsite

For an anisotropic topographic feature in a large-scale flow, the orientation of the topography with respect to the flow will affect the vorticity production that results from the topography-flow interaction. This in turn affects the amount of form drag that the ambient flow experiences. Numerical simulations and perturbation theory are used to explore these effects of change in topographic orientation. The flow is modelled as a quasi-geostrophic homogeneous fluid on anf-plane. The topography is taken to be a hill of limited extent, with an elliptical cross-section in the horizontal. It is shown that, as a result of a basic asymmetry of the quasi-geostrophic flow, the strength of the form drag depends not only on the magnitude of the angle that the topographic axis makes with the oncoming stream, but also on the sign of this angle. For sufficiently low topography, it is found that a positive angle of attack leads to a stronger form drag than that for the corresponding negative angle. For strong topography, this relation is reversed, with the negative angle then resulting in the stronger form drag.

Carnevale, GF, Kloosterziel RC, Orlandi P.  2016.  Equilibration of centrifugally unstable vortices: A review. European Journal of Mechanics B-Fluids. 55:246-258.   10.1016/j.euromechflu.2015.06.007   AbstractWebsite

In three-dimensional flow, a vortex can become turbulent and be destroyed through a variety of instabilities. In rotating flow, however, the result of the breakup of a vortex is usually a state comprising several vortices with their axes aligned along the ambient rotation direction. This article is a review of our recent work on how the combined effect of centrifugal and barotropic instabilities can breakup a vortex and lead to its reformation in a predictable way even though an intermediate stage in the evolution is turbulent. Centrifugal instability tends to force the unstable vortex into a turbulent state that mixes absolute angular momentum in such a way as to precondition the flow for a subsequent barotropic instability. A method for predicting the redistribution of angular momentum and theresulting velocity profile is discussed. The barotropic instability horizontally redistributes the component of vorticity that is aligned along the ambient rotation vector, resulting in the final byproducts of the instability, which are stabilized by the effects of ambient rotation. A prediction scheme that puts the tendencies of these two instabilities together proves to be very reliable. (C) 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

Carnevale, GF, Kloosterziel RC, vanHeijst GJF.  1991.  Propagation of barotropic vortices over topography in a rotating tank. Journal of Fluid Mechanics. 233:119-139.   10.1017/s0022112091000411   AbstractWebsite

A small-scale cyclonic vortex in a relatively broad valley tends to climb up and out of the valley in a cyclonic spiral about the centre, and when over a relatively broad hill it tends to climb toward the top in an anticyclonic spiral around the peak. This phenomenon is examined here through two-dimensional numerical simulations and rotating-tank experiments. The basic mechanism involved is shown to be the same as that which accounts for the northwest propagation of cyclones on a beta-plane. This inviscid nonlinear effect is also shown to be responsible for the observed translationary motion of barotropic vortices in a free-surface rotating tank. The behaviour of isolated vortices is contrasted with that of vortices with non-vanishing circulation.

Carnevale, GF, Briscolini M, Purini R, Vallis GK.  1988.  Numerical experiments on modon stability to topographic perturbations. Physics of Fluids. 31:2562-2566.   10.1063/1.866533   AbstractWebsite

A summary of a numerical study of the stability of modons to topographic perturbation is presented. Previous studies have suggested a monotonic relationship between the horizontal scale of the perturbation and the amplitude needed to destroy a modon—as the scale of the perturbation increases the strength needed for destruction decreases. The results presented here show that this relationship does not hold for scales larger than the modon radius. For large‐scale perturbations, the strength needed for destruction again increases. The modon is most stable to perturbations of horizontal scale either much larger or much smaller than the modon radius. Stability graphs are presented for three types of perturbations; ridges, hills, and irregular terrain.

Carnevale, GF, Briscolini M, Orlandi P.  2001.  Buoyancy- to inertial-range transition in forced stratified turbulence. Journal of Fluid Mechanics. 427:205-239.   10.1017/s002211200000241x   AbstractWebsite

The buoyancy range, which represents a transition from large-scale wave-dominated motions to small-scale turbulence in the oceans and the atmosphere, is investigated through large-eddy simulations. The model presented here uses a continual forcing based on large-scale standing internal waves and has a spectral truncation in the isotropic inertial range. Evidence is presented for a break in the energy spectra from the anisotropic k(-3) buoyancy range to the small-scale k(-5/3) isotropic inertial range. Density structures that form during wave breaking and periods of high strain rate are analysed. Elongated vertical structures produced during periods of strong straining motion are found to collapse in the subsequent vertically compressional phase of the strain resulting in a zone or patch of mixed fluid.

Carnevale, GF, Frisch U, Salmon R.  1981.  H theorems in statistical fluid dynamics. Journal of Physics a-Mathematical and General. 14:1701-1718.   10.1088/0305-4470/14/7/026   AbstractWebsite

It is demonstrated that the second-order Markovian closures frequently used in turbulence theory imply an H theorem for inviscid flow with an ultraviolet spectral cut-off. That is, from the inviscid closure equations, it follows that a certain functional of the energy spectrum (namely entropy) increases monotonically in time to a maximum value at absolute equilibrium. This is shown explicitly for isotropic homogeneous flow in dimensions d>or=2, and then a generalised theorem which covers a wide class of systems of current interest is presented. It is shown that the H theorem for closure can be derived from a Gibbs-type H theorem for the exact non-dissipative dynamics.

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Dietrich, D, Carnevale GF, Orlandi P.  2007.  Flow over the Mid Adriatic Pit. Nuovo Cimento Della Societa Italiana Di Fisica C-Geophysics and Space Physics. 30:277-290.   10.1393/ncc/i2007-10242-x   AbstractWebsite

The influence of the Mid Adriatic Pit (MAP) on the general circulation of the Adriatic is explored through numerical simulations. The numerical code used is the DieCAST model specifically modified for application to the Adriatic Sea. A ten-year simulation is performed and the ability of the model to capture important features of the Adriatic circulation is demonstrated. A series of numerical experiments on the importance of the MAP on the general circulation is performed. It is demonstrated that the current over the northern flank of the MAP, which flows from the Croatian toward the Italian coast, is primarily a topographic current and that such a current would reverse direction if the gradient of the bathymetry were reversed.

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Espa, S, Cenedese A, Mariani M, Carnevale GF.  2009.  Quasi-two-dimensional flow on the polar beta-plane: Laboratory experiments. Journal of Marine Systems. 77:502-510.   10.1016/j.jmarsys.2008.10.015   AbstractWebsite

Geophysical turbulence is strongly affected by the variation of the Coriolis parameter with latitude. This variation results in the so-called beta-effect, which forces energy from small-scales to be transferred preferentially into zonal motions. This effect results in the formation of narrow jet-like zonal flows that dominate the dynamics and act as transport barriers. Here, laboratory experiments are used to reproduce this effect in decaying turbulent flows. An electromagnetic cell is used to generate an initial field of vorticity in a rotating tank. Under conditions of quasigeostrophic flow, the beta-effect is produced by depth variation of the flow instead of variation of the Coriolis parameter. The effects of changing the container geometry and the overall fluid depth on the production of jets are investigated. The results suggest that this laboratory configuration can be used to model jet formation in the oceans and that increasing fluid depth is a practical way to decrease viscous effects. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Espa, S, Carnevale GF, Cenedese A, Mariani M.  2008.  Quasi-two-dimensional decaying turbulence subject to the effect. Journal of Turbulence. 9:1-18.   10.1080/14685240802464417   AbstractWebsite

Freely decaying quasi-2D turbulence under the influence of a meridional variation of the Coriolis parameter f ( effect) is experimentally and numerically modelled. The experimental flow is generated in a rotating electromagnetic cell where the variation of f is approximated by a nearly equivalent topographical effect. In the presence of a high effect, the initial disordered vorticity field evolves to form a weak polar anticyclonic circulation surrounded by a cyclonic zonal jet demonstrating the preferential transfer of energy towards zonal motions. In agreement with theoretical predictions, the energy spectrum becomes peaked near the Rhines wave number with a steep fall-off beyond, indicating the presence of a soft barrier to the energy transfer towards larger scales. DNS substantially confirmed the experimental observations.

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Frederiksen, JS, Carnevale GF.  1986.  Stability properties of exact nonzonal solutions for flow over topography. Geophysical and Astrophysical Fluid Dynamics. 35:173-207.   10.1080/03091928608245892   AbstractWebsite

The nonlinear stability properties of stationary exact nonzonal solutions for inviscid flow over topography are examined within a barotropic model in spherical geometry. For stationary solutions, such that the potential vorticity is proportional to the streamfunction, necessary and sufficient conditions for nonlinear stability are established. For a truncated system with rhomboidal truncation wave number J these are that the solid body rotation component of the zonal wind u(i) be negative, corresponding to westward flow, as J ->infinity. These results are established by using the methods of statistical mechanics. The sufficient condition for stability is also established by applying Arnol'd's method. The results are illustrated by numerical calculations. The stationary solutions are perturbed by disturbances in the streamfunction fields or by small changes in the topographic height; the climatic states for the system are obtained directly using statistical mechanics methods. The nonlinear stability properties of the stationary solutions are obtained by comparing the stationary solution with the climate, which for inviscid flow is shown to be unique. Stationary flows for which u(i) is eastward, are found to be unstable even in the limit as the streamfunction perturbation or change in the topographic height vanish. Large amplitude transient waves are generated which break the time invariance symmetry of the initial stationary flows. In contrast, for stationary flows with westward u(i), the climate is identical to the initial flow in the limit as the initial streamfuncton perturbation or the change in the topographic height vanishes. The linear instability characteristics of the stationary solutions are also obtained by solving a linear eigenvalue problem. The difficulties in establishing the stability properties of more general exact solutions, where the streamfunction is a general differentiable function of the potential vorticity, within numerical spectral models are discussed.

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Kloosterziel, RC, Carnevale GF.  2003.  Closed-form linear stability conditions for magneto-convection. Journal of Fluid Mechanics. 490:333-344.   10.1017/s0022112003005329   AbstractWebsite

Chandrasekhar (1961) extensively investigated the linear dynamics of Rayleigh-Benard convection in an electrically conducting fluid exposed to a uniform vertical magnetic field and enclosed by rigid, stress-free, upper and lower boundaries. He determined the marginal stability boundary and critical horizontal wavenumbers for the onset of convection as a function of the Chandrasekhar number Q or Hartmann number squared. No closed-form formulae appeared to exist and the results were tabulated numerically. We have discovered simple expressions that concisely describe the stability properties of the system. When the Prandtl number Pr is greater than or equal to the magnetic Prandtl number Pm the marginal stability boundary is described by the curve Q = pi(-2)[R - (RcR2/3)-R-1/3] where R is the Rayleigh number and R-c = (27/4)pi(4) is Rayleigh's famous critical value for the onset of stationary convection in the absence of a magnetic field (Q = 0). When Pm > Pr the marginal stability boundary is determined by this curve until intersected by the curve Q = 1/pi(2)[Pm-2(1 + Pr)/Pr-2(1 + Pm)R - ((1 + Pr)(Pr + Pm)/Pr-2)(1/3) (Pm-2(1 + Pr)/Pr-2(1 + Pm))(2/3) (RcR2/3)-R-1/3]. An expression for the intersection point is derived and also for the critical horizontal wavenumbers for which instability sets in along the marginal stability boundary either as stationary convection or in an oscillatory fashion. A simple formula is derived for the frequency of the oscillations. Also we show that in the limit of vanishing magnetic diffusivity, or infinite electrical conductivity, the system is unstable for sufficiently large R. Instability in this limit always sets in via overstability.

Kloosterziel, RC, Carnevale GF, Orlandi P.  2017.  Equatorial inertial instability with full Coriolis force. Journal of Fluid Mechanics. 825:69-108.   10.1017/jfm.2017.377   AbstractWebsite

The zonally symmetric inertial instability of oceanic near-equatorial flows is studied through high-resolution numerical simulations. In homogeneous upper layers, the instability of surface-confined westward currents implies potentially fast downward mixing of momentum with a predictable final equilibrium. With increasing Reynolds number, latitudinal scales along the surface associated with the instability become ever smaller and initially the motions are ever more concentrated underneath the surface. The results suggest that even if the upper layer is stratified, it may still be necessary to include the full Coriolis force in the dynamics rather than use the traditional beta-plane approximation.

Kloosterziel, RC, Carnevale GF.  2007.  Generalized energetics for inertially stable parallel shear flows. Journal of Fluid Mechanics. 585:117-126.   10.1017/s0022112007006933   AbstractWebsite

For simple parallel shear flows on the f-plane and the equatorial beta-plane we derive an energy norm for zonally invariant perturbations. It is used to derive the linear stability boundary for when these flows are inertially stable in the classical sense but may be destabilized due to unequal rates of diffusion of momentum and heat. The analysis is valid when there are arbitrary, zonally invariant, no-slip boundaries which are perfect thermal conductors.

Kloosterziel, RC, Carnevale GF.  1999.  On the evolution and saturation of instabilities of two-dimensional isolated circular vortices. Journal of Fluid Mechanics. 388:217-257.   10.1017/s0022112099004760   AbstractWebsite

Laboratory observations and numerical experiments have shown that a variety of compound vortices can emerge in two-dimensional flow due to the instability of isolated circular vortices. The simple geometrical features of these compound vortices suggest that their description may take a simple form if an appropriately chosen set of functions is used. We employ a set which is complete on the infinite plane for vorticity distributions with finite total enstrophy. Through projection of the vorticity equation (Galerkin method) and subsequent truncation we derive a dynamical system which is used to model the observed behaviour in as simple as possible a fashion. It is found that at relatively low-order truncations the observed behaviour is qualitatively captured by the dynamical system. We determine what the necessary ingredients are for saturation of instabilities at finite amplitude in terms of wave-wave interactions and feedback between various azimuthal components of the vorticity field.

Kloosterziel, RC, Carnevale GF.  1992.  Formal stability of circular vortices. Journal of Fluid Mechanics. 242:249-278.   10.1017/s0022112092002362   AbstractWebsite

The second variation of a linear combination of energy and angular momentum is used to investigate the formal stability of circular vortices. The analysis proceeds entirely in terms of Lagrangian displacements to overcome problems that otherwise arise when one attempts to use Arnol'd's Eulerian formalism. Specific attention is paid to the simplest possible model of an isolated vortex consisting of a core of constant vorticity surrounded by a ring of oppositely signed vorticity. We prove that the linear stability regime for this vortex coincides with the formal stability regime. The fact that there are formally stable isolated vortices could imply that there are provable nonlinearly stable isolated vortices. The method can be applied to more complicated vortices consisting of many nested rings of piecewise-constant vorticity. The equivalent expressions for continuous vorticity distributions are also derived.

Kloosterziel, RC, Carnevale GF.  2003.  Closed-form linear stability conditions for rotating Rayleigh-Benard convection with rigid stress-free upper and lower boundaries. Journal of Fluid Mechanics. 480:25-42.   10.1017/s0022112002003294   AbstractWebsite

The linear dynamics of rotating Rayleigh-Benard convection with rigid stress-free boundaries has been thoroughly investigated by Chandrasekhar (1961) who determined the marginal stability boundary and critical horizontal wavenumbers for the onset of convection and overstability as a function of the Taylor number T. No closed-form formulae appeared to exist and the results were tabulated numerically. However, by taking the Rayleigh number R as independent variable we have found remarkably simple expressions. When the Prandtl number P greater than or equal to P-c = 0.67659, the marginal stability boundary is described by the curve T(R) = R[(R/R-c)(1/2) - 1] where R-c = 27/4pi(4) is Rayleigh's famous critical value for the onset of stationary convection in a non-rotating system (T = 0). For P < P-c the marginal stability boundary is determined by this curve until it is intersected by the curve T(R, P) = R [(1+P/2(3) P-4)(1/2) (R/R-c)(1/2) - 1 + P/2P(2)]. A simple expression for the intersection point is derived and also for the critical horizontal wavenumbers for which, along the marginal stability boundary, instability sets in either as stationary convection or in an oscillatory fashion. A simple formula is derived for the frequency of the oscillations. Further, we have analytically determined critical points on the marginal stability boundary above which an increase of either viscosity or diffusivity is destabilizing. Finally, we show that if the fluid has zero viscosity the system is always unstable, in contradiction to Chandrasekhar's conclusion.

Kloosterziel, RC, Orlandi P, Carnevale GF.  2015.  Saturation of equatorial inertial instability. Journal of Fluid Mechanics. 767:562-594.   10.1017/jfm.2015.63   AbstractWebsite

Inertial instability in parallel shear flows and circular vorwes in a uniformly rotating system (f-plane) redistributes absolute linear momentum or absolute angular momentum in such a way as to neutralize the instability. In previous studies we showed that, in the absence of other instabilities, at high Reynolds numbers the final equilibrium can be predicted with a simple construction based on conservation of total momentum. In this paper we continue this line of research with a study of barotropic shear flows on the equatorial /3-plane, Through numerical simulations the evolution of the instability is studied in select illuminating cases: a westward flowing Gaussian jet With the flow axis exactly on the equator, a uniform shear flow and eastward and Wes t w ard flowing jets that have their flow axis shifted away from the equator. In the numerical simulations it is assumed that there are no along -stream variations. 'fins suppresses equatorial Rossby W a ve s and barotropic shear instabilities and allows only inertial instability to develop. We investigate whether for these flow S the equatorial t-plane the final equilibrated flow can be predicted as was possible for flows on the f-plane. For the Gaussian jet centred on the equator the prediction of the equilibrated flow is obvious by mere inspection of the initial momentum distribution and by assuming that momentum is mixed and homogenized to render the equilibrated flow inertially stable. For the uniform shear flow, however, due to the peculiar nature of the initial momentum distribution and the fact that the Coriolis parameter f varies with latitude, it appears that, unlike in our earlier studies of flows on the f-plane, additional constraints need to be considered to correctly predict the outcome of the highly nonlinear evolution of the instability, The mixing range of the linear shear flow and the value of the mixed momentum is determined numerically and this is used to predict the equilibrated flow that emerges from an eastward flowing jet that is shifted a small distance away from the equator. For shifts large enough to induce no shcar at the equator the equilibrium flow can be well predicted using the simple rccipe used in our carlicr studies of parallel shear flows on the f-plane. For thc westward flowing jet shifted a very small distance from the equator, no prcdiction appears feasible. For modcstly small shifts a prediction is possiblc by combining the empirical prcdiction for thc linear shear flow with a prediction similar to what we used in our previous studies for flows on the f-plane.

Kloosterziel, RC, Carnevale GF, Orlandi P.  2007.  Inertial instability in rotating and stratified fluids: barotropic vortices. Journal of Fluid Mechanics. 583:379-412.   10.1017/s0022112007006325   AbstractWebsite

The unfolding of inertial instability in intially barotropic vortices in a uniformly rotating and stratified fluid is studied through numerical simulations. The vortex dynamics during the instability is examined in detail. We demonstrate that the instability is stabilized via redistribution of angular momentum in a way that produces a new equilibrated barotropic vortex with a stable velocity profile. Based on extrapolations from the results of a series of simulations in which the Reynolds number and strength of stratification are varied, we arrive at a construction based on angular momentum mixing that predicts the infinite-Reynolds-number form of the equilibrated vortex toward which inertial instability drives an unstable vortex. The essential constraint is conservation of total absolute angular momentum. The construction can be used to predict the total energy loss during the equilibration process. It also shows that the equilibration process can result in anticyclones that are more susceptible to horizontal shear instabilities than they were initially, a phenomenon previously observed in laboratory and numerical studies.

Kloosterziel, RC, Carnevale GF.  2008.  Vertical scale selection in inertial instability. Journal of Fluid Mechanics. 594:249-269.   10.1017/s0022112007009007   AbstractWebsite

The linear instability of a barotropic flow with uniform horizontal shear in a stratified rotating fluid is investigated with respect to perturbations invariant in the alongflow direction. The flow can be inertially unstable if there is sufficiently strong anticyclonic shear, but only for sufficiently high Reynolds numbers Re. We determine the critical Reynolds numbers required for amplification of the instability as a function of Prandtl number, strength of the stratification and magnitude of the shear. The vertical scales at the onset of the instability are calculated. For Prandtl number P < 1.44 instability always sets in through stationary overturning motions, for P > 1.44 it may also commence through overstable (oscillatory) motions. For Re exceeding the critical value, we determine the vertical scale of the most rapidly amplifying modes and the corresponding growth rates and how they vary with Re, P, the shear and the strength of stratification.

Kloosterziel, RC, Orlandi P, Carnevale GF.  2007.  Saturation of inertial instability in rotating planar shear flows. Journal of Fluid Mechanics. 583:413-422.   10.1017/s0022112007006593   AbstractWebsite

Inertial instability in a rotating shear flow redistributes absolute linear momentum in such a way as to neutralize the instability. In the absence of other instabilities, the final equilibrium can be predicted by a simple construction based on conservation of total momentum. Numerical simulations, invariant in the along-stream direction, suppress barotropic instability and allow only inertial instability to develop. Such simulations, at high Reynolds numbers, are used to test the theoretical prediction. Four representative examples are given: a jet, a wall-bounded jet, a mixing layer and a wall-bounded shear layer.

Kloosterziel, RC, Carnevale GF, Philippe D.  1993.  Propagation of barotropic dipoles over topography in a rotating tank. Dynamics of Atmospheres and Oceans. 19:65-100.   10.1016/0377-0265(93)90032-3   AbstractWebsite

It is shown how symmetric dipolar vortices can be formed by the action of an impulsive jet in a homogeneous single layer of fluid in a rotating tank. These dipoles are allowed to interact with a constant topographic slope, which can model a beta-plane or a continental shelf. A dipole's trajectory bends toward the right when climbing a slope and to the left when descending, as predicted by numerical simulations and analytical arguments. The maximum penetration of the dipoles over a slope, the adjustment to the slope, and formation of trailing lobes are compared with both numerical simulations and a two-point vortex model. The results suggest that Rossby wave radiation plays an important role in the interaction process.

Koniges, AE, Crotinger JA, Dannevik WP, Carnevale GF, Diamond PH.  1991.  Equilibrium spectra and implications for a two‐field turbulence model. Physics of Plasmas. 3:1297-1299.   10.1063/1.859822   Abstract

Analytic expressions are given for statistical mechanical equilibrium solutions of two‐field turbulence model equations that are used in describing plasma drift waves and for passive scalar advection in a neutral fluid. These are compared with those previously proposed [Phys. Fluids B 1, 1331 (1989)], in particular regarding the role of the cross correlations between fields. Implications for two‐point closure calculations are discussed.