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Schulte-Pelkum, V, Vernon FL, Eakins J.  2003.  Large teleseismic P wavefront deflections observed with broadband arrays. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America. 93:747-756.   10.1785/0120020126   AbstractWebsite

We measure the plane wavefront incidence azimuth for teleseismic P at large-aperture (similar to50 km) broadband arrays. The incidence azimuth is determined by crosscorrelation of the P arrivals on the vertical component seismograms filtered in successive frequency bands. The periods considered range from 10 to 35 see. At the Anza array in southern California, the plane wave direction is deflected from the great circle azimuth of the event by up to 20degrees. In addition, we find a surprisingly strong frequency dependence of the same magnitude and a striking antisymmetric pattern of the deflection as a function of backazimuth, whereas the curvature of the wavefront is small. Similar characteristics are found at the Grafenberg array in Germany and the NORSAR array in Norway, however, with much weaker amplitudes of similar to5degrees. We ascribe the behavior at Anza to structure in the lower crust and uppermost mantle beneath the array, given that the observations are only a function of source backazimuth and not of source depth and source mechanism, that the wavelengths under consideration range from 50 to 270 km, and that the sign of the deviation is opposite to that predicted from shallow crustal structure and Moho topography. We are able to reproduce the magnitude and frequency dependence of the wavefront deflection using finite difference numerical modeling of plane wave propagation through simple 2D structures.

Sandvol, E, Seber D, Barazangi M, Vernon F, Mellors R, Al-Amri A.  1998.  Lithospheric seismic velocity discontinuities beneath the Arabian Shield. Geophysical Research Letters. 25:2873-2876.   10.1029/98gl02214   AbstractWebsite

We determined crustal and lithospheric mantle velocity structure beneath the Arabian Shield through the modeling of receiver function stacks obtained from teleseismic P waves recorded by the 9 station temporary broadband array in western Saudi Arabia. The receiver function deconvolution technique was used to isolate the receiver-side PS mode conversions. A grid search method, which should yield an unbiased global minimum, was used to solve for a shear wave velocity model that is optimal and has the minimum number of layers needed to fit the receiver function waveform. Results from this analysis show that the crustal thickness in the shield area varies from 35 to 40 km in the west, adjacent to the Red Sea, to 45 km in central Arabia. Stability tests of each solution indicate that the models are relatively well constrained. We have also observed evidence for a large positive velocity contrast at sub-Moho depths at four stations at depths of 80 to 100 km. This discontinuity may represent a change in rheology in the lower part of the lithosphere or remnant structure from the formation of the Arabian Shield.

Castro, RR, Shearer PM, Astiz L, Suter M, Jacques-Ayala C, Vernon F.  2010.  The Long-Lasting Aftershock Series of the 3 May 1887 M-w 7.5 Sonora Earthquake in the Mexican Basin and Range Province. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America. 100:1153-1164.   10.1785/0120090180   AbstractWebsite

We study local and regional body-wave arrival times from several seismic networks to better define the active regional fault pattern in the epicentral region of the 3 May 1887 M-w 7.5 Sonora, Mexico (southern Basin and Range Province) earthquake. We determine hypocenter coordinates of earthquakes that originated between 2003 and 2007 from arrival times recorded by the local network RESNES (Red Sismica del Noreste de Sonora) and stations of the Network of Autonomously Recording Seismographs (NARS)-Baja array. For events between April and December 2007, we also incorporated arrival times from USArray stations located within 150 km of the United States-Mexico border. We first obtained preliminary earthquake locations with the Hypoinverse program (Klein, 2002) and then relocated these initial hypocenter coordinates with the source-specific station term (SSST) method (Lin and Shearer, 2005). Most relocated epicenters cluster in the upper crust near the faults that ruptured during the 1887 earthquake and can be interpreted to be part of its long-lasting series of aftershocks. The region of aftershock activity extends, along the same fault zone, 40-50 km south of the documented southern tip of the 1887 rupture and includes faults in the epicentral region of the 17 May 1913 (I-max VIII, M-I 5.0-0.4) and 18 December 1923 (I-max IX, M-I 5.7-0.4) Granados-Huasabas, Sonora, earthquakes, which themselves are likely to be aftershocks of the 1887 event. The long aftershock duration can be explained by the unusually large magnitude of the mainshock and by the low slip rates and long mainshock recurrence times of the faults that ruptured in 1887.

Yang, HF, Li ZF, Peng ZG, Ben-Zion Y, Vernon F.  2014.  Low-velocity zones along the San Jacinto Fault, Southern California, from body waves recorded in dense linear arrays. Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth. 119:8976-8990.   10.1002/2014jb011548   AbstractWebsite

We derive high-resolution information on low-velocity fault zone (FZ) structures along the San Jacinto Fault Zone (SJFZ), Southern California, using waveforms of local earthquakes that are recorded at multiple linear cross-fault arrays. We observe clear across-fault delays of direct P and S waves, indicating damage zones at different segments of the SJFZ. We then compute synthetic traveltimes and waveforms using generalized ray theory and perform forward modeling to constrain the FZ parameters. At the southern section near the trifurcation area, the low-velocity zone (LVZ) of the Clark branch has a width of 200m, 30-45% reduction in Vp, and 50% reduction in Vs. From array data across the Anza seismic gap, we find a LVZ with 200m width and 50% reduction in both Vp and Vs, nearly as prominent as that on the southern section. We only find prominent LVZs beneath three out of the five arrays, indicating along-strike variations of the fault damage. FZ-reflected phases are considerably less clear than those observed above the rupture zone of the 1992 Landers earthquake shortly after the event. This may reflect partially healed LVZs with less sharp boundaries at the SJFZ, given the relatively long lapse time from the last large surface-rupturing event. Alternatively, the lack of observed FZ-reflected phases could be partially due to the relatively small aperture of the arrays. Nevertheless, the clear signatures of damage zones at Anza and other locations indicate very slow healing process, at least in the top few kilometers of the crust.