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Pavlis, GL, Vernon F, Harvey D, Quinlan D.  2004.  The generalized earthquake-location (GENLOC) package: an earthquake-location library. Computers & Geosciences. 30:1079-1091.   10.1016/j.cageo.2004.06.010   AbstractWebsite

We describe a library and associated set of applications for locating seismic events. The library is called the GENeralized LOCation (GENLOC) library because it is a general library that implements most methods commonly used for single event locations. The library has a flexible implementation of the standard Gauss-Newton method with many options for weighting schemes, inversion methods, and algorithms for choosing an initial location estimate. GENLOC also has a grid-search algorithm that makes no assumptions about the geometry of the grid it is searching returning only the point with a best fit solution for the specified residual norm. GENLOC supports both arrival time and array slowness vector measurements. A unique feature is the strong separation between the travel time/earth model problem and the location estimations. GENLOC can utilize data from any seismic phase for which the user can supply an earth model and method to compute theoretical travel times and/or slowness values. The GENLOC library has been used in five different working applications: (1) a simple command line program, (2) an interactive graphical user interface version used in an analyst information system, (3) a database-driven relocation program, (4) a recent implementation of the progressive multiple event location method, and (5) a real-time location program. We ran a validation test against LOCSAT and found reasonable consistency in estimated locations. We attribute observed differences in the solutions to roundoff errors in different calculators used by the two programs. (C) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Sahakian, VJ, Baltay A, Hanks TC, Buehler J, Vernon FL, Kilb D, Abrahamson NA.  2019.  Ground motion residuals, path effects, and crustal properties: A pilot study in Southern California. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth. 124:5738-5753.   10.1029/2018jb016796   AbstractWebsite

Abstract To improve models of ground motion estimation and probabilistic seismic hazard analyses, the engineering seismology field is moving toward developing fully nonergodic ground motion models, models specific for individual source-to-site paths. Previous work on this topic has examined systematic variations in ground-motion along particular paths (from either recorded or simulated earthquake data) and has not included physical properties of the path. We present here a framework to include physical path properties, by seeking correlations between ground motion amplitudes along specific paths and crustal properties, specifically seismic velocity and anelastic attenuation, along that path. Using a large data set of small-magnitude earthquakes recorded in Southern California, we find a correlation between the gradient of seismic S wave velocity and the path term residual, after accounting for an average geometric spreading and anelastic attenuation, indicating that heterogeneity in crustal velocity primarily controls the path-specific attenuation. Even in aseismic regions, details of path-specific ground motion prediction equations can be developed from crustal structure and property data.