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Jacques, AA, Horel JD, Crosman ET, Vernon FL.  2017.  Tracking Mesoscale Pressure Perturbations Using the USArray Transportable Array. Monthly Weather Review. 145:3119-3142.   10.1175/mwr-d-16-0450.1   AbstractWebsite

Mesoscale convective phenomena induce pressure perturbations that can alter the strength and magnitude of surface winds, precipitation, and other sensible weather, which, in some cases, can inflict injuries and damage to property. This work extends prior research to identify and characterize mesoscale pressure features using a unique resource of 1-Hz pressure observations available from the USArray Transportable Array (TA) seismic field campaign. A two-dimensional variational technique is used to obtain 5-km surface pressure analysis grids every 5 min from 1 March to 31 August 2011 from the TA observations and gridded surface pressure from the Real-Time Mesoscale Analysis over a swath of the central United States. Bandpass-filtering and feature-tracking algorithms are employed to isolate, identify, and assess prominent mesoscale pressure perturbations and their properties. Two case studies, the first involving mesoscale convective systems and the second using a solitary gravity wave, are analyzed using additional surface observation and gridded data resources. Summary statistics for tracked features during the period reviewed indicate a majority of perturbations last less than 3 h, produce maximum perturbation magnitudes between 2 and 5 hPa, and move at speeds ranging from 15 to 35ms(-1). The results of this study combined with improvements nationwide in real-time access to pressure observations at subhourly reporting intervals highlight the potential for improved detection and nowcasting of high-impact mesoscale weather features.

Pavlis, GL, Sigloch K, Burdick S, Fouch MJ, Vernon FL.  2012.  Unraveling the geometry of the Farallon plate: Synthesis of three-dimensional imaging results from USArray. Tectonophysics. 532:82-102.   10.1016/j.tecto.2012.02.008   AbstractWebsite

We compare 12 recent three-dimensional (3D) seismic imaging results that made extensive use of data from the Earthscope Transportable Array (TA). Our goal is to sort out what can be said about the geometry of the Farallon plate. Our main approach is 3D visualization using a kinematic plate motion model as a framework. Comparison of results from all 12 image volumes indicates that the results are most consistent with a single, coherent Farallon slab overridden by North American. The Farallon can be tracked from the trench in the Pacific Northwest to its remnants in the lower mantle under eastern North America. From the trench the lithosphere has a low dip to the volcanic arc. Immediately east of the arc the slab steepens sharply before undergoing a decrease in dip above the 410 km discontinuity. The gently dipping section varies along strike. Under Washington the deflection is minor but to the south the slab flattens to become nearly horizontal beneath southern Idaho. There is a strong agreement that the high velocity anomaly associated with the slab vanishes under eastern Oregon. Scattered wave imaging results, however, suggest the top of the anomaly is continuous. These can be reconciled if one assumes the wavespeed anomaly has been neutralized by processes linked to the Yellowstone system. We find that all results are consistent with a 4D kinematic model of the Mendocino slab window under Nevada and Utah. In the eastern US the larger scale models all show a lower mantle anomaly related to the older history of Farallon subduction. The link between the lower mantle and new results in the U.S. Cordillera lies under the High Plains where the required USArray coverage is not yet complete. Image volumes in a unified format are supplied in an electronic supplement. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Castro, RR, Shearer PM, Astiz L, Suter M, Jacques-Ayala C, Vernon F.  2010.  The Long-Lasting Aftershock Series of the 3 May 1887 M-w 7.5 Sonora Earthquake in the Mexican Basin and Range Province. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America. 100:1153-1164.   10.1785/0120090180   AbstractWebsite

We study local and regional body-wave arrival times from several seismic networks to better define the active regional fault pattern in the epicentral region of the 3 May 1887 M-w 7.5 Sonora, Mexico (southern Basin and Range Province) earthquake. We determine hypocenter coordinates of earthquakes that originated between 2003 and 2007 from arrival times recorded by the local network RESNES (Red Sismica del Noreste de Sonora) and stations of the Network of Autonomously Recording Seismographs (NARS)-Baja array. For events between April and December 2007, we also incorporated arrival times from USArray stations located within 150 km of the United States-Mexico border. We first obtained preliminary earthquake locations with the Hypoinverse program (Klein, 2002) and then relocated these initial hypocenter coordinates with the source-specific station term (SSST) method (Lin and Shearer, 2005). Most relocated epicenters cluster in the upper crust near the faults that ruptured during the 1887 earthquake and can be interpreted to be part of its long-lasting series of aftershocks. The region of aftershock activity extends, along the same fault zone, 40-50 km south of the documented southern tip of the 1887 rupture and includes faults in the epicentral region of the 17 May 1913 (I-max VIII, M-I 5.0-0.4) and 18 December 1923 (I-max IX, M-I 5.7-0.4) Granados-Huasabas, Sonora, earthquakes, which themselves are likely to be aftershocks of the 1887 event. The long aftershock duration can be explained by the unusually large magnitude of the mainshock and by the low slip rates and long mainshock recurrence times of the faults that ruptured in 1887.