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Donner, S, Lin CJ, Hadziioannou C, Gebauer A, Vernon F, Agnew DC, Igel H, Schreiber U, Wassermann J.  2017.  Comparing direct observation of strain, rotation, and displacement with array estimates at Pinon Flat Observatory, California. Seismological Research Letters. 88:1107-1116.   10.1785/0220160216   AbstractWebsite

The unique instrument setting at the Pinon Flat Observatory in California is used to simultaneously measure 10 out of the 12 components, completely describing the seismic-wave field. We compare the direct measurements of rotation and strain for the 13 September 2015 M-w 6.7 Gulf of California earthquake with array-derived observations using this configuration for the first time. In general, we find a very good fit between the observations of the two measurements with cross-correlation coefficients up to 0.99. These promising results indicate that the direct and array-derived measurements of rotation and strain are consistent. For the array-based measurement, we derived a relation to estimate the frequency range within which the array-derived observations provide reliable results. This relation depends on the phase velocity of the study area and the calibration error, as well as on the size of the array.

Anchieta, MC, Wolfe CJ, Pavlis GL, Vernon FL, Eakins JA, Solomon SC, Laske G, Collins JA.  2011.  Seismicity around the Hawaiian Islands Recorded by the PLUME Seismometer Networks: Insight into Faulting near Maui, Molokai, and Oahu. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America. 101:1742-1758.   10.1785/0120100271   AbstractWebsite

Instrumental limitations have long prevented the detailed characterization of offshore earthquakes around the Hawaiian Islands, and little is known about the spatial distribution of earthquakes in regions outside the vicinity of the well-monitored island of Hawaii. Here, we analyze data from the deployment of two successive networks of ocean-bottom seismometers (OBSs) as part of the Plume-Lithosphere Undersea Melt Experiment (PLUME) to better determine seismicity patterns along the Hawaiian Islands and their offshore regions. We find that earthquake detection rates are improved when seismograms are high-pass filtered above similar to 5 Hz to reduce the background seismic noise. Hypocentral solutions have been determined for 1147 previously undetected microearthquakes, and an additional 2880 events correspond to earthquakes already in the catalog of the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO). The spatial patterns of earthquakes identified solely on the PLUME network provide complementary information to patterns identified by the HVO network. A diffuse pattern of seismicity is found to the southeast of the island of Hawaii, and clusters of earthquakes are located west of the island. Many microearthquakes are observed in the vicinity of Maui and Molokai, including some located at mantle depths. A small number of microearthquakes are found to occur near Oahu. There is no evidence from our analyses that the Molokai fracture zone (MFZ) is seismically active at this time, and no evidence was found of a previously hypothesized Diamond Head fault (DHF) near Oahu. However, on the basis of both the PLUME and HVO locations, there is a northeast-southwest-trending swath of epicenters extending northeastward of Oahu that may indicate the locus of moderate-sized historic earthquakes attributed to the Oahu region.

Lewis, MA, Peng Z, Ben-Zion Y, Vernon FL.  2005.  Shallow seismic trapping structure in the San Jacinto fault zone near Anza, California. Geophysical Journal International. 162:867-881.   10.1111/j.1365-246X.2005.02684.x   AbstractWebsite

We analyse fault zone trapped waves, generated by similar to 500 small earthquakes, for high-resolution imaging of the subsurface structure of the Coyote Creek, Clark Valley and Buck Ridge branches of the San Jacinto fault zone near Anza, California. Based on a small number of selected trapped waves within this data set, a previous study concluded on the existence of a low-velocity waveguide that is continuous to a depth of 15-20 km. In contrast, our systematic analysis of the larger data set indicates a shallow trapping structure that extends only to a depth of 3-5 km. This is based on the following lines of evidence. (1) Earthquakes clearly outside these fault branches generate fault zone trapped waves that are recorded by stations within the fault zones. (2) A traveltime analysis of the difference between the direct S arrivals and trapped wave groups shows no systematic increase (moveout) with increasing hypocentral distance or event depth. Estimates based on the observed average moveout values indicate that the propagation distances within the low-velocity fault zone layers are 3-5 km. (3) Quantitative waveform inversions of trapped wave data indicate similar short propagation distances within the low-velocity fault zone layers. The results are compatible with recent inferences on shallow trapping structures along several other faults and rupture zones. The waveform inversions also indicate that the shallow trapping structures are offset to the northeast from the surface trace of each fault branch. This may result from a preferred propagation direction of large earthquake ruptures on the San Jacinto fault.

Scott, JS, Masters TG, Vernon FL.  1994.  3-D Velocity Structure of the San-Jacinto Fault Zone near Anza, California .1. P-Waves. Geophysical Journal International. 119:611-626.   10.1111/j.1365-246X.1994.tb00145.x   AbstractWebsite

Seismic arrival times from microearthquakes (M(L) < 4) On the San Jacinto fault near Anza, California, are used to find spatial variations in the seismic velocity that are related to the crustal structure of the fault zone. Preliminary modelling of the 1-D P-wave velocity structure of the upper 25 km of crust reveals that most of the variation in velocity is lateral rather than depth dependent. The traveltime anomalies due to lateral structure can be partially compensated for by applying station corrections, however the variance of the traveltime residuals is still 2.25 times larger than the variance of the picking error. The spatially correlated residuals show that this variance is due to localized velocity anomalies and that the data require further modelling using a 3-D velocity structure. Because the 3-D inverse problem is non-unique, smoothness constraints are applied to find the model that has the minimum structure required to fit the data to the picking error, where a smooth model is defined such that the gradient of the velocity perturbation from the original 1-D model is small. With small non-zero station corrections, a 3-D velocity model can be found that fits the data well. The structure is well resolved from 3 to 9 km depth where lateral perturbations of up to 7 per cent are determined independently of the trade-off between station corrections and poorly resolved near surface structure. The model shows a horizontal gradient with overall faster velocities in the north-east side of the fault zone. At 3-6 km depth, the signature of the fault zone is evident in the lower velocities beneath the surface trace of the fault. However, at 9 km depth, higher seismic velocities are found extending into the fault zone from the north-east block. This higher velocity region occurs where there is a distinct lack of seismicity on the fault. There is also a localized feature in the south-west of the modelled region that is more than 10 km from the main trace of the fault with velocities 3 per cent slower than average.