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Orcutt, JA, Vernon FL, Arrott M, Chave AD.  2007.  A Candidate Cyberinfrastructure for the NSF Ocean Observatories Initiative. ( Orcutt JA, Ed.).: American Geophysical Union, 2000 Florida Ave., N.W. Washington DC 20009 USA, [URL:] AbstractWebsite

We will describe a candidate cyberinfrastructure for the NSF Major Research Equipment and Facilities Construction project termed the Ocean Observatories Initiative. The system architecture departs substantially from earlier models in dealing with real-time data streams (not files), real-time workflow quality assurance and modeling/analysis, and the use of the knowledge developed in controlling the attached, real-time sensor network. The middleware, which facilitates these interactions, also provides the capability to support many separate virtual observatories developed to meet individual scientists needs. This transformative approach to scientific interaction with the ocean environment marks the beginning of a new epoch of the instrumented or digital Earth with a globally accessible continuous signal representing the now state of the Earth system. The data and inferred knowledge informs our understanding of the past, present, and predicted future of Earth systems as the observed signal grows exponentially for the foreseeable future.

Orcutt, JA, Vernon FL, Peach CL, Arrott M, Chave AD, Schofield O, Meisinger MJ, Farcas C, Farcas E, Krueger I, Kleinert J.  2010.  The cyberinfrastructure model for the NSF Ocean Observatories Initiative: A 20-year prospective. ( Orcutt JA, Ed.).: American Geophysical Union, 2000 Florida Ave., N.W. Washington DC 20009 USA, [URL:] AbstractWebsite

The NSF Ocean Observatories Initiative (OOI) began a five-year construction period in October 2009. The Consortium on Ocean Leadership (COL) manages the overall program with Implementing Organizations for Coastal/Global Scale Nodes (CGSN) at Woods Hole, Oregon State and Scripps; the Regional Cabled Network (RCN) at U of Washington and Cyberinfrastructure (CI) at UCSD. The CI component is a substantial departure from previous approaches to data distribution and management, which we believe will have a significant impact on oceanography over the next twenty years. These innovations include the availability of data in near-real-time with latencies of seconds, open access to all data, analysis of the data streams for detection and modeling, use of the derived knowledge to modify the network with minimal or no human interaction and maintenance of data provenance through time as new versions of the data are created through QA/QC processes. The network architecture is designed to be scalable so that addition of new sensors is straightforward and inexpensive with costs increasing linearly at worst. Rather than building new computer infrastructure (disk farms and computer clusters), we are exploiting Amazons Extensible Computing Cloud (EC2) and Simple Storage System (S3) to reduce long-term commitments to hardware and maintenance in order to minimize operations and maintenance costs. The OOI CI is actively partnering with other organizations (e.g. NOAAs IOOS) to integrate existing data systems using many of the same technologies to improve broad access to existing and planned observing systems, including those that provide critical climate data. We welcome interest and participation in the OOIs CI construction, testing and transition to operations over the coming five years.

Orcutt, JA, Vernon FL, Arrott M, Chave A, Schofield O, Peach C, Krueger I, Meisinger M.  2007.  Cyberinfrastructure for the NSF Ocean Observatories Initiative. ( Orcutt JA, Ed.).: American Geophysical Union AbstractWebsite

The Ocean Observatories Initiative (OOI) is an environmental observatory covering a diversity of oceanic environments, ranging from the coastal to the deep ocean. The physical infrastructure comprises a combination of seafloor cables, buoys and autonomous vehicles. It is currently in the final design phase, with construction planned to begin in mid-2010 and deployment phased over five years. The Consortium for Ocean Leadership manages this Major Research Equipment and Facilities Construction program with subcontracts to Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of Washington and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. High-level requirements for the CI include the delivery of near-real-time data with minimal latencies, open data, data analysis and data assimilation into models, and subsequent interactive modification of the network (including autonomous vehicles) by the cyberinfrastructure. Network connections include a heterogeneous combination of fiber optics, acoustic modems, and Iridium satellite telemetry. The cyberinfrastructure design loosely couples services that exist throughout the network and share common software and middleware as necessary. In this sense, the system appears to be identical at all scales, so it is self-similar or fractal by design. The system provides near-real-time access to data and developed knowledge by the OOI's Education and Public Engagement program, to the physical infrastructure by the marine operators and to the larger community including scientists, the public, schools and decision makers. Social networking is employed to facilitate the virtual organization that builds, operates and maintains the OOI as well as providing a variety of interfaces to the data and knowledge generated by the program. We are working closely with NOAA to exchange near-real-time data through interfaces to their Data Interchange Facility (DIF) program within the Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS). Efficiencies have been emphasized through the use of university and commercial computing clouds.