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Chin, EJ.  2018.  Deep crustal cumulates reflect patterns of continental rift volcanism beneath Tanzania. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology. 173   10.1007/s00410-018-1512-z   AbstractWebsite

Magmatism on Earth is most abundantly expressed by surface volcanic activity, but all volcanism has roots deep in the crust, lithosphere, and mantle. Intraplate magmatism, in particular, has remained enigmatic as the plate tectonic paradigm cannot easily explain phenomena such as large flood basalt provinces and lithospheric rupture within continental interiors. Here, I explore the role of deep crustal magmatic processes and their connection to continental rift volcanism as recorded in deep crustal xenoliths from northern Tanzania. The xenoliths are interpreted as magmatic cumulates related to Cenozoic rift volcanism, based on their undeformed, cumulate textures and whole-rock compositions distinct from melt-reacted peridotites. The cumulates define linear trends in terms of whole-rock major elements and mineralogically, can be represented as mixtures of olivine+clinopyroxene. AlphaMELTS modeling of geologically plausible parental melts shows that the end-member cumulates, clinopyroxenite and Fe-rich dunite, require fractionation from two distinct melts: a strongly diopside-normative melt and a fractionated picritic melt, respectively. The former can be linked to the earliest, strongly silica-undersaturated rift lavas sourced from melting of metasomatized lithosphere, whereas the latter is linked to the increasing contribution from the upwelling asthenospheric plume beneath East Africa. Thus, deep crustal cumulate systematics reflect temporal and compositional trends in rift volcanism, and show that mixing, required by the geochemistry of many rift lava suites, is also mirrored in the lavas' cumulates.

Lee, CTA, Erdman M, Yang WB, Ingram L, Chin EJ, DePaolo DJ.  2018.  Sulfur isotopic compositions of deep arc cumulates. Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 500:76-85.   10.1016/j.epsl.2018.08.017   AbstractWebsite

Heavy sulfur isotopic compositions of arc lavas suggest a seawater component in the sulfur budget of arc lavas, but whether the seawater signature derives from the subducting slab or from magma interactions with lithologies in the upper plate is unclear. To see through the effects of degassing or crustal processing, a study was conducted on the S isotopic composition of deep arc cumulates from 45-90 km beneath the Sierra Nevada batholith in California, a Cretaceous continental arc. These cumulates represent the crystal line of descent from magmatic differentiation of hydrous arc basalts. The deepest (up to 60-90 km) and most primitive cumulates are low in Fe and have high molar Mg/(Mg + Fe), whereas the shallow and more evolved cumulates are high in Fe and have low Mg/(Mg + Fe). Bulk rock (delta S-34 correlates with Fe and negatively with Mg/(Mg + Fe). The most primitive cumulates are isotopically similar to the Earth's mantle whereas the more evolved cumulates are heavier by 6%o in the direction of seawater sulfate. The mantle-like S isotopic signatures of the primitive cumulates indicate that the contribution of slab derived sulfate to arc lavas may not be as large as widely thought. Heavy S isotopic signatures are seen only in the evolved arc cumulates, which suggests that the seawater signature of arc lavas may not all derive directly from the slab, but perhaps during magma interaction with pre-arc crust. In continental arcs, pre-arc crust is dominated by accreted marine metasediments and metabasalts, and in island arcs, by seawater altered oceanic crust in the upper plate. The limited contribution of slab sulfate to the mantle source of Sierran arc magmas, if generalizable, suggests that sulfate in the subducting slab is efficiently released well before the arc magmatic front. Such a scenario would be consistent with the higher solubility of sulfate in aqueous fluids compared to that of sulfide. In summary, it is suggested here that the upper plate, in the form of seawater altered crust and sediments, may be as or more important for the sulfur budget in arc magmas than the subducting slab. Early loss of sulfate from the slab during subduction suggests that the dominant S species transported to the deep mantle is in the reduced form - sulfide. (C) 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.