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Sandwell, DT, Sichoix L.  2000.  Topographic phase recovery from stacked ERS interferometry and a low-resolution digital elevation model. Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth. 105:28211-28222.   10.1029/2000jb900340   AbstractWebsite

A hybrid approach to topographic recovery from ERS interferometry is developed and assessed. Tropospheric/ionospheric artifacts, imprecise orbital information, and layover are key issues in recovering topography and surface deformation from repeat-pass interferometry. Previously, we developed a phase gradient approach to stacking interferograms to reduce these errors and also to reduce the short-wavelength phase noise (see Sandwell and Pi-ice [1998] and Appendix A). Here the method is extended to use a low-resolution digital elevation model to constrain long-wavelength phase errors and an iteration scheme to minimize errors in the computation of phase gradient. We demonstrate the topographic phase recovery on 16-m postings using 25 ERS synthetic aperture radar images from an area of southern California containing 2700 m of relief. On the basis of a comparison with 81 GPS monuments, the ERS-derived topography has a typical absolute accuracy of better than 10 m except in areas of layover. The resulting topographic phase enables accurate two-pass, real-time interferometry even in mountainous areas where traditional phase unwrapping schemes fail. As an example, we form a topography-free (127-m perpendicular baseline) interferogram spanning 7.5 years; fringes from two major earthquakes and aseismic slip on the San Andreas Fault are clearly isolated.

Smith, B, Sandwell D.  2004.  A three-dimensional semianalytic viscoelastic model for time-dependent analyses of the earthquake cycle. Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth. 109   10.1029/2004jb003185   AbstractWebsite

[ 1] Exploring the earthquake cycle for large, complex tectonic boundaries that deform over thousands of years requires the development of sophisticated and efficient models. In this paper we introduce a semianalytic three-dimensional (3-D) linear viscoelastic Maxwell model that is developed in the Fourier domain to exploit the computational advantages of the convolution theorem. A new aspect of this model is an analytic solution for the surface loading of an elastic plate overlying a viscoelastic half-space. When fully implemented, the model simulates ( 1) interseismic stress accumulation on the upper locked portion of faults, ( 2) repeated earthquakes on prescribed fault segments, and ( 3) the viscoelastic response of the asthenosphere beneath the plate following episodic ruptures. We verify both the analytic solution and computer code through a variety of 2-D and 3-D tests and examples. On the basis of the methodology presented here, it is now possible to explore thousands of years of the earthquake cycle along geometrically complex 3-D fault systems.

Barbot, S, Fialko Y, Sandwell D.  2009.  Three-dimensional models of elastostatic deformation in heterogeneous media, with applications to the Eastern California Shear Zone. Geophysical Journal International. 179:500-520.   10.1111/j.1365-246X.2009.04194.x   AbstractWebsite

P>We present a semi-analytic iterative procedure for evaluating the 3-D deformation due to faults in an arbitrarily heterogeneous elastic half-space. Spatially variable elastic properties are modelled with equivalent body forces and equivalent surface traction in a 'homogenized' elastic medium. The displacement field is obtained in the Fourier domain using a semi-analytic Green function. We apply this model to investigate the response of 3-D compliant zones (CZ) around major crustal faults to coseismic stressing by nearby earthquakes. We constrain the two elastic moduli, as well as the geometry of the fault zones by comparing the model predictions to Synthetic Aperture Radar inferferometric (InSAR) data. Our results confirm that the CZ models for the Rodman, Calico and Pinto Mountain faults in the Eastern California Shear Zone (ECSZ) can explain the coseismic InSAR data from both the Landers and the Hector Mine earthquakes. For the Pinto Mountain fault zone, InSAR data suggest a 50 per cent reduction in effective shear modulus and no significant change in Poisson's ratio compared to the ambient crust. The large wavelength of coseismic line-of-sight displacements around the Pinto Mountain fault requires a fairly wide (similar to 1.9 km) CZ extending to a depth of at least 9 km. Best fit for the Calico CZ, north of Galway Dry Lake, is obtained for a 4 km deep structure, with a 60 per cent reduction in shear modulus, with no change in Poisson's ratio. We find that the required effective rigidity of the Calico fault zone south of Galway Dry Lake is not as low as that of the northern segment, suggesting along-strike variations of effective elastic moduli within the same fault zone. The ECSZ InSAR data is best explained by CZ models with reduction in both shear and bulk moduli. These observations suggest pervasive and widespread damage around active crustal faults.

Lyons, SN, Sandwell DT, Smith WHF.  2000.  Three-dimensional estimation of elastic thickness under the Louisville Ridge. Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth. 105:13239-13252.   10.1029/2000jb900065   AbstractWebsite

A three-dimensional approach to estimating elastic thickness is presented which uses dense satellite altimetry and sparse ship bathymetry. This technique is applied to the Louisville Ridge system to study the tectonic history of the region. The inversion is performed as both a first-order approximation and a nonlinear relationship between gravity and topography based on Parker's [1973] equation. While the higher-order effect on the gravity anomaly is nearly zero for most of the region, the magnitude is significant over the summits of the ridge. Nevertheless, the inclusion of the nonlinear terms has only a minor influence on the elastic thickness estimate within each region, lowering the value by similar to 1-2 km compared with the linear result. The incorrect assumption of two dimensionality for circular features exhibits a marked effect on the gravitational anomaly, resulting in false sidelobe structure of nearly 20 mGal for large seamounts. Our elastic thickness estimates are compared with the contradictory values obtained in previous studies by Cazenave and Dominh [1984] and Watts et al. [1988]. We find an increasing elastic thickness along the chain from southeast to northwest, with a discontinuity along the Wishbone scarp. The jump in elastic thickness values northwest of the scarp appears to be an indication of an age discontinuity caused by an extinct spreading center north of the ridge.

Fialko, Y, Sandwell D, Simons M, Rosen P.  2005.  Three-dimensional deformation caused by the Bam, Iran, earthquake and the origin of shallow slip deficit. Nature. 435:295-299.   10.1038/nature03425   AbstractWebsite

Our understanding of the earthquake process requires detailed insights into how the tectonic stresses are accumulated and released on seismogenic faults. We derive the full vector displacement field due to the Bam, Iran, earthquake of moment magnitude 6.5 using radar data from the Envisat satellite of the European Space Agency. Analysis of surface deformation indicates that most of the seismic moment release along the 20-km-long strike-slip rupture occurred at a shallow depth of 4 - 5 km, yet the rupture did not break the surface. The Bam event may therefore represent an end-member case of the 'shallow slip deficit' model, which postulates that coseismic slip in the uppermost crust is systematically less than that at seismogenic depths ( 4 - 10 km). The InSAR-derived surface displacement data from the Bam and other large shallow earthquakes suggest that the uppermost section of the seismogenic crust around young and developing faults may undergo a distributed failure in the interseismic period, thereby accumulating little elastic strain.

Sandwell, DT.  1984.  Thermomechanical Evolution of Oceanic Fracture-Zones. Journal of Geophysical Research. 89:1401-1413.   10.1029/JB089iB13p11401   AbstractWebsite

A fracture zone (FZ) model is constructed from existing models of the thermal and mechanical evolution of the oceanic lithosphere. As the lithosphere cools by conduction, thermal and mechanical boundary layers develop and increase in thickness as (age)1/2. Surface expressions of this development, such as topography and deflection of the vertical (i.e., gravity field), are most apparent along major FZ's because of the sharp age contrast. A simple model, including the effects of lateral heat transport but with no elastic layer, predicts that variations in seafloor depth and deflection of the vertical will become increasingly smooth and ultimately disappear as the FZ ages. Observations, however, show that both the FZ topography and the deflection of the vertical remain sharp as the FZ evolves. These two observations, as well as the observed asymmetry in deflection of the vertical profiles across the Udintsev, Romanche, and Mendocino FZ's, are explained by including a continuous elastic layer in the model. The asymmetry in deflection of the vertical is a consequence of elastic thickness variations across the FZ. Modeling also shows that the evolution of the FZ topography is extremely sensitive to the initial thermal structure near the ridge-transform intersection. Model geoid steps and their development with age are used to access techniques for measuring geoid offsets across FZ's. Reasonable step estimation techniques will underestimate the overall step amplitude by up to 50%. This implies that abnormally thin thermal boundary layers, derived from studies of geoid height versus age, are not required by the data.

Sandwell, DT.  1986.  Thermal-Stress and the Spacings of Transform Faults. Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth and Planets. 91:6405-6417.   10.1029/JB091iB06p06405   AbstractWebsite

Bathymetric charts are used with satellite altimeter profiles to locate major ridge-transform intersections along five spreading ridges. The ridges are the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, the East Pacific Rise, the Chile Rise, the Pacific-Antarctic Rise, and the Southeast Indian Ridge. Analysis of these data show spacings between transform faults W increase linearly with spreading rate ν (W/ν = 6.28 m.y.). This linear correlation is explained by a thermoelastic model of a cooling strip of lithosphere spreading at a rate ν. The traction-free boundaries of the thin elastic strip simulate cracks in the lithosphere at transform faults. A two-dimensional thermoelastic solution for the in-plane stress shows the largest stress component is tensional and parallel to the ridge. Stresses are zero at the ridge and increase as (age)½ to a maximum value at an age of W/4ν. All stress components are small for ages greater than W/ν. When the transform spacing is large compared with the spreading rate (W/ν > 100 m.y.) thermal stresses exceed the strength of the lithosphere for ages between 0 and 30 Ma. The observed maximum ratio of transform spacing to spreading rate (W/ν = 10 m.y.) results in low thermal stresses that only exceed the strength of the lithosphere for ages less than 1 Ma. Thus transform faults relieve most of the thermal stress. Model predictions also agree with earthquake studies showing that normal faults in young lithosphere have tensional axes aligned with the ridge. Moreover, oceanic intraplate earthquakes rarely occur in lithosphere older than 30 Ma as predicted by the model. These and other geophysical observations confirm Turcotte's hypothesis that transform faults are thermal contraction cracks.

Sandwell, DT.  1982.  Thermal isostasy; response of a moving lithosphere to a distributed heat source. Journal of Geophysical Research. 87:1001-1014., Washington, DC, United States (USA): American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC   10.1029/JB087iB02p01001   AbstractWebsite

Spreading ridges and hot spot swells are identified by their high surface heat flow, shallow seafloor, and high geopotential. To understand these and other thermotectonic features, the oceanic lithosphere is modeled as a thermomechanical boundary layer moving through a three-dimensional, time-independent heat source. The heat source mimics the heat advection associated with a spreading ridge or hot spot without introducing the nonlinearities of these flow processes. The Fourier transforms of three Green's functions (response functions), which relate the three observable fields to their common heat source, are determined analytically. Each of these reponse functions is highly anisotropic because the lithosphere is moving with respect to the source. However, the ratio of the gravity response function to the topography response function (i.e., gravity/topography transfer function) is nearly isotropic and has a maximum lying between the flexural wavelength and 2pi times the thickness of the thermal boundary layer. The response functions are most useful for determining the surface heat flow, seafloor topography, and geopotential for complex lithospheric thermal structures. In practice, these three observables are calculated by multiplying the Fourier transform of the heat source by the appropriate response function and inverse transforming the products. Almost any time-independent thermotectonic feature can be modeled using this technique. Included in this report are examples of spreading ridges and thermal swells, although more complex geometries such as ridges offset by transform faults and RRR-type triple junctions can also be modeled. Because forward modeling is both linear and computationally simple, the inverse of this technique could be used to infer some basic characteristics of the heat source directly from the observed fields.

Mayes, CL, Lawver LA, Sandwell DT.  1990.  Tectonic History and New Isochron Chart of the South-Pacific. Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth and Planets. 95:8543-8567.   10.1029/JB095iB06p08543   AbstractWebsite

We have developed an internally consistent isochron chart and a tectonic history of the South Pacific using a combination of new satellite altimeter data and shipboard magnetic and bathymetric data. Highly accurate, vertical deflection profiles (1–2 μrad), derived from 22 repeat cycles of Geosat altimetry, reveal subtle lineations in the gravity field associated with the South Pacific fracture zones. These fracture zone lineations are correlated with sparse shipboard bathymetric identifications of fracture zones and thus can be used to determine paleospreading directions in uncharted areas. The high density of Geosat altimeter profiles reveals previously unknown details in paleospreading directions on all of the major plates. Magnetic anomaly identifications and magnetic lineation interpretations from published sources were combined with these fracture zone lineations to produce a tectonic fabric map. The tectonic fabric was then used to derive new poles of rotation for 12 selected times in the Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic. From our reconstructions, we estimated the former location of the spreading centers in order to derive a new set of isochrons (interpreted unes of equal age on the ocean floor). We believe that the use of new Geosat altimeter data in combination with a multi-plate reconstruction has led to an improvement in our understanding of South Pacific tectonics.

Gahagan, LM, Scotese CR, Royer JY, Sandwell DT, Winn JK, Tomlins RL, Ross MI, Newman JS, Muller RD, Mayes CL, Lawver LA, Heubeck CE.  1988.  Tectonic Fabric Map of the Ocean Basins from Satellite Altimetry Data. Tectonophysics. 155:1-&.   10.1016/0040-1951(88)90258-2   AbstractWebsite

Satellite altimetry data provide a new source of information on the bathymetry of the ocean floor. The tectonic fabric of the oceans (i.e., the arrangement of fracture zones, ridges, volcanic plateaus and trenches) is revealed by changes in the horizontal gravity gradient as recorded by satellite altimetry measurements. SEASAT and GEOSAT altimetry data have been analyzed and a global map of the horizontal gravity gradient has been produced that can be used to identify a variety of marine tectonic features. The uniformity of the satellite coverage provides greater resolution and continuity than maps based solely on ship-track data. This map is also the first global map to incorporate the results of the GEOSAT mission, and as a result, new tectonic features are revealed at high southerly latitudes.This map permits the extension of many tectonic features well beyond what was previously known. For instance, various fracture zones, such as the Ascension, Tasman, and Udintsev fracture zones, can be extended much closer to adjacent coninental margins. The tectonic fabric map also reveals many features that have not been previously mapped. These features include extinct ridges, minor fracture zone lineations and seamounts. In several areas, especially across aseismic plateaus or along the margins of the continents, the map displays broad gravity anomalies whose origin may be related to basement structures.

Royer, J-Y, Gahagan LM, Lawver LA, Mayes CL, Nuernberg D, Sandwell DT, Scotese CR.  1990.  A tectonic chart for the Southern Ocean derived from Geosat altimetry data. AAPG Studies in Geology. 31( St. John B, Ed.).:89-99., Tulsa, OK, United States (USA): American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Tulsa, OK AbstractWebsite

Presented is a new tectonic fabric map of the southern ocean south of 45S, derived from Geosat altimeter profiles and published bathymetric charts and magnetic anomaly picks. The interpretation of the Geosat data is based on an analysis of the first derivative of the geoid profiles (i.e., vertical deflection profiles). To improve the accuracy and resolution of the vertical deflection profiles, 22 repeat cycles from the first year of the Geosat/Exact Repeat Mission (Geosat/ERM) were averaged. At wavelengths less than about 200 km, the vertical deflection is highly correlated with sea-floor topography and thus reveals major features in areas that were previously unsurveyed. The density of the Geosat data is greatest in the high latitudes where lineated bathymetric features such as fracture zones, spreading ridges, trenches, and rifted margins stand out. To construct the tectonic fabric chart, the Geosat data are analyzed in combination with available shipboard bathymetric data and magnetic anomaly identifications. (Auth.)