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Garcia, ES, Sandwell DT, Luttrell KM.  2015.  An iterative spectral solution method for thin elastic plate flexure with variable rigidity. Geophysical Journal International. 200:1010-1026.   10.1093/gji/ggu449   AbstractWebsite

Thin plate flexure theory provides an accurate model for the response of the lithosphere to vertical loads on horizontal length scales ranging from tens to hundreds of kilometres. Examples include flexure at seamounts, fracture zones, sedimentary basins and subduction zones. When applying this theory to real world situations, most studies assume a locally uniform plate thickness to enable simple Fourier transform solutions. However, in cases where the amplitude of the flexure is prominent, such as subduction zones, or there are rapid variations in seafloor age, such as fracture zones, these models are inadequate. Here we present a computationally efficient algorithm for solving the thin plate flexure equation for non-uniform plate thickness and arbitrary vertical load. The iterative scheme takes advantage of the 2-D fast Fourier transform to perform calculations in both the spatial and spectral domains, resulting in an accurate and computationally efficient solution. We illustrate the accuracy of the method through comparisons with known analytic solutions. Finally, we present results from three simple models demonstrating the differences in trench outer rise flexure when 2-D variations in plate rigidity and applied bending moment are taken into account. Although we focus our analysis on ocean trench flexure, the method is applicable to other 2-D flexure problems having spatial rigidity variations such as seamount loading of a thermally eroded lithosphere or flexure across the continental-oceanic crust boundary.

Tong, XP, Smith-Konter B, Sandwell DT.  2014.  Is there a discrepancy between geological and geodetic slip rates along the San Andreas Fault System? Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth. 119:2518-2538.   10.1002/2013jb010765   AbstractWebsite

Previous inversions for slip rate along the San Andreas Fault System (SAFS), based on elastic half-space models, show a discrepancy between the geologic and geodetic slip rates along a few major fault segments. In this study, we use an earthquake cycle model representing an elastic plate over a viscoelastic half-space to demonstrate that there is no significant discrepancy between long-term geologic and geodetic slip rates. The California statewide model includes 41 major fault segments having steady slip from the base of the locked zone to the base of the elastic plate and episodic shallow slip based on known historical ruptures and geologic recurrence intervals. The slip rates are constrained by 1981 secular velocity measurements from GPS and L-band intereferometric synthetic aperture radar. A model with a thick elastic layer (60 km) and half-space viscosity of 10(19)Pa s is preferred because it produces the smallest misfit to both the geologic and the geodetic data. We find that the geodetic slip rates from the thick plate model agrees to within the bounds of the geologic slip rates, while the rates from the elastic half-space model disagree on specific important fault segments such as the Mojave and the North Coast segment of the San Andreas Fault. The viscoelastic earthquake cycle models have generally higher slip rates than the half-space model because most of the faults along the SAFS are late in the earthquake cycle, so today they are moving slower than the long-term cycle-averaged velocity as governed by the viscoelastic relaxation process.

Zhang, SJ, Sandwell DT, Jin TY, Li DW.  2017.  Inversion of marine gravity anomalies over southeastern China seas from multi-satellite altimeter vertical deflections. Journal of Applied Geophysics. 137:128-137.   10.1016/j.jappgeo.2016.12.014   AbstractWebsite

The accuracy and resolution of marine gravity field derived from satellite altimetry mainly depends on the range precision and dense spatial distribution. This paper aims at modeling a regional marine gravity field with improved accuracy and higher resolution (1' x V') over Southeastern China Seas using additional data from CryoSat-2 as well as new data from AltiKa. Three approaches are used to enhance the precision level of satellite-derived gravity anomalies. Firstly we evaluate a suite of published retracking algorithms and find the two-step retracker is optimal for open ocean waveforms. Secondly, we evaluate the filtering and resampling procedure used to reduce the full 20 or 40 Hz data to a lower rate having lower noise. We adopt a uniform low-pass filter for all altimeter missions and resample at 5 Hz and then perform a second editing based on sea surface slope estimates from previous models. Thirdly, we selected WHU12 model to update the corrections provided in geophysical data record. We finally calculated the 1' x 1' marine gravity field model by using EGM2008 model as reference field during the remove/restore procedure. The root mean squares of the discrepancies between the new result and DTU10, DTU13, V23.1, EGM2008 are within the range of 1.8-3.9 mGal, while the verification with respect to shipboard gravity data shows that the accuracy of the new result reached a comparable level with DTU13 and was slightly superior to V23.1, DTU10 and EGM2008 models. Moreover, the new result has a 2 mGal better accuracy over open seas than coastal areas with shallow water depth. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Gonzalez-Ortega, JA, Gonzalez-Garcia JJ, Sandwell DT.  2018.  Interseismic velocity field and seismic moment release in northern Baja California, Mexico. Seismological Research Letters. 89:526-533.   10.1785/0220170133   AbstractWebsite

We have analyzed all available continuous Global Positioning System (cGPS) and campaign-mode GPS data from northern Baja California, Mexico, covering the 1993.1-2010.1 period to obtain a consistent interseismic velocity field to derive a continuous strain-rate field. The analysis shows concentrations of high strain rate along the Imperial/Cerro Prieto fault system extending from the Salton Sea to the Gulf of California, with strike-slip faulting consistent with principal strain axes direction within the area of largest historical and instrumental seismic release. We translated the strain rate into geodetic moment accumulation rate to evaluate the potential of seismic activity of the region and compare with the actual seismic release of historical and instrumental earthquake catalog. Comparison of regional moment accumulation rate based on geodesy (M-0(g) = 6.3 +/- 1.3 x 10(18) N center dot m/yr) to the corresponding moment release rate by earthquakes (M-0(s) = 2.7 +/- 0.8 x 10(18) N center dot m/yr) highlights a moment rate deficit equivalent to an M-w 7.5-7.8 earthquake. As part of this accumulated moment was released by the recent 2010 M-w 7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake, these results can provide input constraints on earthquake forecasts for the northern Baja California fault system.

Kaneko, Y, Fialko Y, Sandwell DT, Tong X, Furuya M.  2013.  Interseismic deformation and creep along the central section of the North Anatolian Fault (Turkey): InSAR observations and implications for rate-and-state friction properties. Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth. 118:316-331.   10.1029/2012jb009661   AbstractWebsite

We present high-resolution measurements of interseismic deformation along the central section of the North Anatolian Fault (NAF) in Turkey using interferometric synthetic aperture radar data from the Advanced Land Observing Satellite and Envisat missions. We generated maps of satellite line-of-sight velocity using five ascending Advanced Land Observing Satellite tracks and one descending Envisat track covering the NAF between 31.2 degrees E and 34.3 degrees E. The line-of-sight velocity reveals discontinuities of up to similar to 5 mm/yr across the Ismetpasa segment of the NAF, implying surface creep at a rate of similar to 9 mm/yr; this is a large fraction of the inferred slip rate of the NAF (21-25 mm/yr). The lateral extent of significant surface creep is about 75 km. We model the inferred surface velocity and shallow fault creep using numerical simulations of spontaneous earthquake sequences that incorporate laboratory-derived rate and state friction. Our results indicate that frictional behavior in the Ismetpasa segment is velocity strengthening at shallow depths and transitions to velocity weakening at a depth of 3-6 km. The inferred depth extent of shallow fault creep is 5.5-7 km, suggesting that the deeper locked portion of the partially creeping segment is characterized by a higher stressing rate, smaller events, and shorter recurrence interval. We also reproduce surface velocity in a locked segment of the NAF by fault models with velocity-weakening conditions at shallow depth. Our results imply that frictional behavior in a shallow portion of major active faults with little or no shallow creep is mostly velocity weakening. Citation: Kaneko, Y., Y. Fialko, D. T. Sandwell, X. Tong, and M. Furuya (2013), Interseismic deformation and creep along the central section of the North Anatolian Fault (Turkey): InSAR observations and implications for rate-and-state friction properties, J. Geophys. Res. Solid Earth, 118, 316-331, doi: 10.1029/2012JB009661.

Sandwell, DT, Wessel P.  2016.  Interpolation of 2-D vector data using constraints from elasticity. Geophysical Research Letters. 43:10703-10709.   10.1002/2016gl070340   AbstractWebsite

We present a method for interpolation of sparse two-dimensional vector data. The method is based on the Green's functions of an elastic body subjected to in-plane forces. This approach ensures elastic coupling between the two components of the interpolation. Users may adjust the coupling by varying Poisson's ratio. Smoothing can be achieved by ignoring the smallest eigenvalues in the matrix solution for the strengths of the unknown body forces. We demonstrate the method using irregularly distributed GPS velocities from southern California. Our technique has been implemented in both the Generic Mapping Tools and MATLAB (R).

Tong, XP, Sandwell DT, Smith-Konter B.  2015.  An integral method to estimate the moment accumulation rate on the Creeping Section of the San Andreas Fault. Geophysical Journal International. 203:48-62.   10.1093/gji/ggv269   AbstractWebsite

Moment accumulation rate (also referred to as moment deficit rate) is a fundamental quantity for evaluating seismic hazard. The conventional approach for evaluating moment accumulation rate of creeping faults is to invert for the slip distribution from geodetic measurements, although even with perfect data these slip-rate inversions are non-unique. In this study, we show that the slip-rate versus depth inversion is not needed because moment accumulation rate can be estimated directly from surface geodetic data. We propose an integral approach that uses dense geodetic observations from Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) and the Global Positioning System (GPS) to constrain the moment accumulation rate. The moment accumulation rate is related to the integral of the product of the along-strike velocity and the distance from the fault. We demonstrate our methods by studying the Creeping Section of the San Andreas fault observed by GPS and radar interferometry onboard the ERS and ALOS satellites. Along-strike variation of the moment accumulation rate is derived in order to investigate the degree of partial locking of the Creeping Section. The central Creeping Segment has a moment accumulation rate of 0.25-3.1 x 10(15) Nm yr(-1) km(-1). The upper and lower bounds of the moment accumulation rates are derived based on the statistics of the noise. Our best-fitting model indicates that the central portion of the Creeping Section is accumulating seismic moment at rates that are about 5 per cent to 23 per cent of the fully locked Carrizo segment that will eventually be released seismically. A cumulative moment budget calculation with the historical earthquake catalogue (M > 5.5) since 1857 shows that the net moment deficit at present is equivalent to a M-w 6.3 earthquake.

Malinverni, ES, Sandwell DT, Tassetti AN, Cappelletti L.  2014.  InSAR decorrelation to assess and prevent volcanic risk. European Journal of Remote Sensing. 47:537-556.   10.5721/EuJRS20144730   AbstractWebsite

SAR can be invaluable describing pre-eruption surface deformation and improving the understanding of volcanic processes. This work studies correlation of pairs of SAR images focusing on the influence of surface, climate conditions and acquisition band. Chosen L-band and C-band images (ENVISAT, ERS and ALOS) cover most of the Yellowstone caldera (USA) over a span of 4 years, sampling all the seasons. Interferograms and correlation maps are generated and studied in relation to snow depth and temperature. To isolate temporal decorrelation pairs of images with the shortest baseline are chosen. Results show good performance during winter, bad attitude towards wet snow and good coherence during summer with L-band performing better over vegetation.

Myer, D, Sandwell D, Brooks B, Foster J, Shimada M.  2008.  Inflation along Kilauea's Southwest Rift Zone in 2006. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 177:418-424.   10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2008.06.006   AbstractWebsite

We report on InSAR and GPS results showing the first crustal inflation along the southwest rift zone at Kilauea volcano in over 20 years. Two independent interferograms (May 2-August 2, 2006 and June 22-Nov 7, 2006) from the ALOS PALSAR instrument reveal domal uplift located southwest of the main caldera. The uplift is bounded on the northeast by the caldera and follows the southwest rift zone for about 12 km. It is approximately 8 km wide. We use data derived from permanent GPS stations to calibrate the InSAR displacement data and estimate uplift of 7.7 cm during the first interferogram and 8.9 cm during the second with line-of-sight volumes of 2.8 x 10(6) m(3) and 3.0 X 10(6) m(3) respectively. The earthquake record for the periods before, during, and after inflation shows that a swarm of shallow earthquakes (z<5 km) signaled the beginning of the uplift and that elevated levels of shallow seismicity along the rift zones occurred throughout the uplift period. GPS data indicate that the inflation occurred steadily over nine months between mid-January and mid-October, 2006 making injection of a sill unlikely. We attribute the inflation to recharge of a shallow ductile area under the SWRZ. (c) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Small, C, Sandwell DT.  1994.  Imaging Midocean Ridge Transitions with Satellite Gravity. Geology. 22:123-126.   10.1130/0091-7613(1994)022<0123:imortw>2.3.co;2   AbstractWebsite

Gravity maps derived from satellite altimeter measurements provide unprecedented medium-resolution coverage of sparsely surveyed mid-ocean ridges in the southern oceans. A spectral analysis of 76 000 km of coincident shipboard and satellite gravity measurements shows that satellite altimeters can accurately resolve features with half-wavelengths as short as 13 km. The coverage and resolution of these gravity data allow us to determine accurately both the location of poorly charted ridge axes and the variation in axial anomaly character along the ridge axis, although their detailed morphology is not resolved. The results of this study support earlier studies that showed a transition from spreading-rate-dependent axial gravity lows to rate-independent axial highs with increasing spreading rate. Four such transitions are imaged on the Southeast Indian Ridge and Pacific Antarctic Ridge. We expect that these transitions are the result of a temperature-sensitive threshold phenomenon and may be influenced by nearby hot spots.