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Barbot, S, Fialko Y, Sandwell D.  2009.  Three-dimensional models of elastostatic deformation in heterogeneous media, with applications to the Eastern California Shear Zone. Geophysical Journal International. 179:500-520.   10.1111/j.1365-246X.2009.04194.x   AbstractWebsite

P>We present a semi-analytic iterative procedure for evaluating the 3-D deformation due to faults in an arbitrarily heterogeneous elastic half-space. Spatially variable elastic properties are modelled with equivalent body forces and equivalent surface traction in a 'homogenized' elastic medium. The displacement field is obtained in the Fourier domain using a semi-analytic Green function. We apply this model to investigate the response of 3-D compliant zones (CZ) around major crustal faults to coseismic stressing by nearby earthquakes. We constrain the two elastic moduli, as well as the geometry of the fault zones by comparing the model predictions to Synthetic Aperture Radar inferferometric (InSAR) data. Our results confirm that the CZ models for the Rodman, Calico and Pinto Mountain faults in the Eastern California Shear Zone (ECSZ) can explain the coseismic InSAR data from both the Landers and the Hector Mine earthquakes. For the Pinto Mountain fault zone, InSAR data suggest a 50 per cent reduction in effective shear modulus and no significant change in Poisson's ratio compared to the ambient crust. The large wavelength of coseismic line-of-sight displacements around the Pinto Mountain fault requires a fairly wide (similar to 1.9 km) CZ extending to a depth of at least 9 km. Best fit for the Calico CZ, north of Galway Dry Lake, is obtained for a 4 km deep structure, with a 60 per cent reduction in shear modulus, with no change in Poisson's ratio. We find that the required effective rigidity of the Calico fault zone south of Galway Dry Lake is not as low as that of the northern segment, suggesting along-strike variations of effective elastic moduli within the same fault zone. The ECSZ InSAR data is best explained by CZ models with reduction in both shear and bulk moduli. These observations suggest pervasive and widespread damage around active crustal faults.

Sandwell, DT, Myer D, Mellors R, Shimada M, Brooks B, Foster J.  2008.  Accuracy and Resolution of ALOS Interferometry: Vector Deformation Maps of the Father's Day Intrusion at Kilauea. Ieee Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing. 46:3524-3534.   10.1109/tgrs.2008.2000634   AbstractWebsite

We assess the spatial resolution and phase noise of interferograms made from L-band Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) synthetic-aperture-radar (SAR) data and compare these results with corresponding C-band measurements from European Space Agency Remote Sensing Satellite (ERS). Based on cross-spectral analysis of phase gradients, we find that the spatial resolution of ALOS interferograms is 1.3x better than ERS interferograms. The phase noise of ALOS (i.e., line-of-sight precision in the 100-5000-m wavelength band) is 1.6x worse than ERS (3.3 mm versus 2.1 mm). In both cases, the largest source of error is tropospheric phase delay. Vector deformation maps associated with the June 17, 2007 (Father's day) intrusion along the east rift zone of the Kilauea Volcano were recovered using just four ALOS SAR images from two look directions. Comparisons with deformation vectors from 19 continuous GPS sites show rms line-of-site precision of 14 mm and rms azimuth precision (flight direction) of 71 mm. This azimuth precision is at least 4x better than the corresponding measurements made at C-band. Phase coherence is high even in heavily vegetated areas in agreement with previous results. This improved coherence combined with similar or better accuracy and resolution suggests that L-band ALOS will outperform C-band ERS in the recovery of slow crustal deformation.

Fialko, Y, Sandwell D, Simons M, Rosen P.  2005.  Three-dimensional deformation caused by the Bam, Iran, earthquake and the origin of shallow slip deficit. Nature. 435:295-299.   10.1038/nature03425   AbstractWebsite

Our understanding of the earthquake process requires detailed insights into how the tectonic stresses are accumulated and released on seismogenic faults. We derive the full vector displacement field due to the Bam, Iran, earthquake of moment magnitude 6.5 using radar data from the Envisat satellite of the European Space Agency. Analysis of surface deformation indicates that most of the seismic moment release along the 20-km-long strike-slip rupture occurred at a shallow depth of 4 - 5 km, yet the rupture did not break the surface. The Bam event may therefore represent an end-member case of the 'shallow slip deficit' model, which postulates that coseismic slip in the uppermost crust is systematically less than that at seismogenic depths ( 4 - 10 km). The InSAR-derived surface displacement data from the Bam and other large shallow earthquakes suggest that the uppermost section of the seismogenic crust around young and developing faults may undergo a distributed failure in the interseismic period, thereby accumulating little elastic strain.

Lyons, SN, Bock Y, Sandwell DT.  2002.  Creep along the imperial fault, southern California, from GPS measurements. Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth. 107   10.1029/2001jb000763   AbstractWebsite

[1] In May of 1999 and 2000, we surveyed with Global Positioning System (GPS) 46 geodetic monuments established by Imperial College, London, in a dense grid (half-mile spacing) along the Imperial Fault, with three additional National Geodetic Survey sites serving as base stations. These stations were previously surveyed in 1991 and 1993. The Imperial College sites were surveyed in rapid-static mode (15-20 min occupations), while the NGS sites continuously received data for 10 h d(-1). Site locations were calculated using the method of instantaneous positioning, and velocities were determined relative to one of the NGS base stations. Combining our results with far-field velocities from the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC), we fit the data to a simple elastic dislocation model with 35 mm yr(-1) of right-lateral slip below 10 km and 9 mm yr(-1) of creep from the surface down to 3 km. The velocity field is asymmetrical across the fault and could indicate a dipping fault plane to the northeast or a viscosity contrast across the fault.

Jacobs, A, Sandwell D, Fialko Y, Sichoix L.  2002.  The 1999 (M-w 7. 1) Hector Mine, California, earthquake: Near-field postseismic deformation from ERS interferometry. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America. 92:1433-1442.   10.1785/0120000908   AbstractWebsite

Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data over the area of the Hector Mine earthquake (M-w 7.1, 16 October 1999) reveal postseismic deformation of several centimeters over a spatial scale of 0.5 to 50 km. We analyzed seven SAR acquisitions to form interferograms over four time periods after the event. The main deformations seen in the line-of-sight (LOS) displacement maps are a region of subsidence (60 mm LOS increase) on the northern end of the fault, a region of uplift (45 mm LOS decrease) located to the northeast of the primary fault bend, and a linear trough running along the main rupture having a depth of up to 15 mm and a width of about 2 km. We correlate these features with a double left-bending, right-lateral, strike-slip fault that exhibits contraction on the restraining side and extension along the releasing side of the fault bends. The temporal variations in the near-fault postseismic deformation are consistent with a characteristic time scale of 135 + 42 or - 25 days, which is similar to the relaxation times following the 1992 Landers earthquake. High gradients in the LOS displacements occur on the fault trace, consistent with afterslip on the earthquake rupture. We derive an afterslip model by inverting the LOS data from both the ascending and descending orbits. Our model indicates that much of the afterslip occurs at depths of less than 3 to 4 km.

Sandwell, DT, Sichoix L, Smith B.  2002.  The 1999 Hector Mine earthquake, southern California: Vector near-field displacements from ERS InSAR. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America. 92:1341-1354.   10.1785/0120000901   AbstractWebsite

Two components of fault slip are uniquely determined from two line-of-sight (LOS) radar interferograms by assuming that the fault-normal component of displacement is zero. We use this approach with ascending and descending interferograms from the ERS satellites to estimate surface slip along the Hector Mine earthquake rupture. The LOS displacement is determined by visually counting fringes to within I kin of the outboard ruptures. These LOS estimates and uncertainties are then transformed into strike- and dip-slip estimates and uncertainties; the transformation is singular for a N-S oriented fault and optimal for an E-W oriented fault. In contrast to our previous strike-slip estimates, which were based only on a descending interferogram, we now find good agreement with the geological measurements, except at the ends of the rupture. The ascending interferogram reveals significant west-side-down dip-slip (similar to1.0 in) which reduces the strike-slip estimates by I to 2 in, especially along the northern half of the rupture. A spike in the strike-slip displacement of 6 m is observed in central part of the rupture. This large offset is confirmed by subpixel cross correlation of features in the before and after amplitude images. In addition to strike slip and dip slip, we identify uplift and subsidence along the fault, related to the restraining and releasing bends in the fault trace, respectively. Our main conclusion is that at least two look directions are required for accurate estimates of surface slip even along a pure strike-slip fault. Models and results based only on a single look direction could have major errors. Our new estimates of strike slip and dip slip along the rupture provide a boundary condition for dislocation modeling. A simple model, which has uniform slip to a depth of 12 km, shows good agreement with the observed ascending and descending interferograms.

Mellors, RJ, Sichoix L, Sandwell DT.  2002.  Lack of precursory slip to the 1999 Hector Mine, California, earthquake as constrained by InSAR. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America. 92:1443-1449.   10.1785/0120010244   AbstractWebsite

We looked for evidence of interseismic strain occurring between the 1992 Landers earthquake and the 1999 Hector Mine earthquake near the Lavic Lake and Bullion faults by using interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR). Interferograms covering the Hector Mine epicentral region were studied for possible slip along the Bullion and Lavic Lake faults by both visual inspection and a matched filter technique intended to emphasize slip located at the nucleation point. Some indications of possible deformation associated with the 5 July 1992 M-L 5.4 Pisgah event was observed, but high decorrelation prevented a conclusive determination. We have seen no evidence for precursory slip in the epicentral region up to 30 days before the Hector Mine event. We estimated that the slip equivalent to a M-w 4.5 event would have been observable in the months before the Hector Mine event, and this places an upper bound on the long-term precursory slip, had it occurred. We have noted that InSAR is well suited for detecting precursory slip in general due to the high spatial resolution and the lack of ground instrumentation required but that the detection level depends on the depth and orientation of the slip.