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Myer, D, Sandwell D, Brooks B, Foster J, Shimada M.  2008.  Inflation along Kilauea's Southwest Rift Zone in 2006. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 177:418-424.   10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2008.06.006   AbstractWebsite

We report on InSAR and GPS results showing the first crustal inflation along the southwest rift zone at Kilauea volcano in over 20 years. Two independent interferograms (May 2-August 2, 2006 and June 22-Nov 7, 2006) from the ALOS PALSAR instrument reveal domal uplift located southwest of the main caldera. The uplift is bounded on the northeast by the caldera and follows the southwest rift zone for about 12 km. It is approximately 8 km wide. We use data derived from permanent GPS stations to calibrate the InSAR displacement data and estimate uplift of 7.7 cm during the first interferogram and 8.9 cm during the second with line-of-sight volumes of 2.8 x 10(6) m(3) and 3.0 X 10(6) m(3) respectively. The earthquake record for the periods before, during, and after inflation shows that a swarm of shallow earthquakes (z<5 km) signaled the beginning of the uplift and that elevated levels of shallow seismicity along the rift zones occurred throughout the uplift period. GPS data indicate that the inflation occurred steadily over nine months between mid-January and mid-October, 2006 making injection of a sill unlikely. We attribute the inflation to recharge of a shallow ductile area under the SWRZ. (c) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Baer, G, Sandwell D, Williams S, Bock Y, Shamir G.  1999.  Coseismic deformation associated with the November 1995, M-w=7.1 Nuweiba earthquake, Gulf of Elat (Aqaba), detected by synthetic aperture radar interferometry. Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth. 104:25221-25232.   10.1029/1999jb900216   AbstractWebsite

The November 22, 1995, M-w=7.1 Nuweiba earthquake occurred along one of the left-stepping segments of the Dead Sea Transform in the Gulf of flat (Aqaba). Although it was the largest earthquake along this fault in the last few centuries, little is yet known about the geometry of the rupture, the slip distribution along it, and the nature of postseismic deformation following the main shock. In this study we examine the surface deformation pattern during the coseismic phase of the earthquake in an attempt to better elucidate the earthquake rupture process. As the entire rupture zone was beneath the waters of the Gulf, and there is very little Global Positioning System (GPS) data available in the region for the period spanning the earthquake, interferometric synthetic aperture radar (INSAR) provides the only source of information of surface deformation associated with this earthquake. We chose four synthetic aperture radar (SAR) scenes of about 90x90 km each spanning the rupture area, imaged by the ERS-1 and ERS-2 satellites. The coseismic interferograms show contours of equal satellite-to-ground range changes that correspond to surface displacements due to the earthquake rupture. Interferograms that span the earthquake by 1 week show similar fringe patterns' as those that span the earthquake by 6 months, suggesting that postseismic deformation is minor or confined to the first week after the earthquake. A high displacement gradient is seen on the western side of the Gulf, 20-40 km south of flat and Aqaba, where the total satellite-to-ground range changes are at least 15 cm. The displacement gradient is relatively uniform on the eastern side of the Gulf and the range changes are less than 10 cm. To interpret these results, we compare them to synthetic interferograms generated by elastic dislocation models with a variety of fault parameters. Although selecting the best fit fault parameters is nonunique, we are able to generate a group of simplified model interferograms that provide a reasonable fit to the coseismic interferogram and serve to constrain the location of the fault. The present analysis shows that if the rupture reached the Gulf-bottom surface, the mean sinistral slip along the fault is constrained to about 1.4 m. If surface rupture did not occur, the average sinistral slip is constrained to the range of 1.4-3 m for a fault patch buried 0-4 km below the Gulf-bottom Surface, respectively, with a minor normal component.

Price, EJ, Sandwell DT.  1998.  Small-scale deformations associated with the 1992 Landers, California, earthquake mapped by synthetic aperture radar interferometry phase gradients. Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth. 103:27001-27016.   10.1029/98jb01821   AbstractWebsite

The Landers earthquake (M-w 7.3) occurred on June 28, 1992, and ruptured nearly 100 km of previously mapped and unmapped faults in the Mojave Desert. We use synthetic aperture radar interferometry (InSAR) to examine the cumulative surface deformation between April 24 and August 7, 1992, in a 100 x 100 km region surrounding the northern portion of the earthquake rupture. Also, we introduce a technique for manipulating SAR interferograms to extract short-wavelength displacement information. This technique involves computation and subsequent combination of interferometric phase gradient maps. The InSAR results show significant deformation signatures associated with faults, fractures, dry lake beds, and mountainous regions within 75-100 km of the main rupture. Using the phase gradient method, we are able to extract small-scale deformation patterns near the main rupture. Many of the preexisting, mapped faults within 50 km of the main rupture experienced triggered slip; these include the Old Woman, Lenwood, Johnson Valley, West Calico, and Calico Faults. The InSAR results also indicate right-lateral offsets along secondary fractures trending N-NE within the left-lateral zone of shear between the main rupture and the Johnson Valley Fault. Additionally, there are interesting interferogram fringe signatures surrounding Troy Dry Lake and Coyote Dry Lake that are related to deformation of dry lake beds.

Sandwell, DT, Price EJ.  1998.  Phase gradient approach to stacking interferograms. Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth. 103:30183-30204.   10.1029/1998jb900008   AbstractWebsite

The phase gradient approach is used to construct averages and differences of interferograms without phase unwrapping. Our objectives for change detection are to increase fringe clarity and decrease errors due to tropospheric and ionospheric delay by averaging many interferograms. The standard approach requires phase unwrapping, scaling the phase according to the ratio of the perpendicular baseline, and finally forming the average or difference; however, unique phase unwrapping is usually not possible. Since the phase gradient due to topography is proportional to the perpendicular baseline, phase unwrapping is unnecessary prior to averaging or differencing. Phase unwrapping may be needed to interpret the results, but it is delayed until all of the largest topographic signals are removed. We demonstrate the method by averaging and differencing six interferograms having a suite of perpendicular baselines ranging from 18 to 406 m. Cross-spectral analysis of the difference between two Tandem interferograms provides estimates of spatial resolution, which are used to design prestack filters. A wide range of perpendicular baselines provides the best topographic recovery in terms of accuracy and coverage. Outside of mountainous areas the topography has a relative accuracy of better than 2 m. Residual interferograms (single interferogram minus stack) have tilts across the unwrapped phase that are typically 50 mm in both range and azimuth, reflecting both orbit error and atmospheric delay. Smaller-scale waves with amplitudes of 15 mm are interpreted as atmospheric lee waves. A few Global Positioning System (GPS) control points within a Game could increase the precision to similar to 20 mm for a single interferogram; further improvements may be achieved by stacking residual interferograms.