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Sandwell, DT, Smith WHF.  2009.  Global marine gravity from retracked Geosat and ERS-1 altimetry: Ridge segmentation versus spreading rate. Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth. 114   10.1029/2008jb006008   AbstractWebsite

Three approaches are used to reduce the error in the satellite-derived marine gravity anomalies. First, we have retracked the raw waveforms from the ERS-1 and Geosat/GM missions resulting in improvements in range precision of 40% and 27%, respectively. Second, we have used the recently published EGM2008 global gravity model as a reference field to provide a seamless gravity transition from land to ocean. Third, we have used a biharmonic spline interpolation method to construct residual vertical deflection grids. Comparisons between shipboard gravity and the global gravity grid show errors ranging from 2.0 mGal in the Gulf of Mexico to 4.0 mGal in areas with rugged seafloor topography. The largest errors of up to 20 mGal occur on the crests of narrow large seamounts. The global spreading ridges are well resolved and show variations in ridge axis morphology and segmentation with spreading rate. For rates less than about 60 mm/a the typical ridge segment is 50-80 km long while it increases dramatically at higher rates (100-1000 km). This transition spreading rate of 60 mm/a also marks the transition from axial valley to axial high. We speculate that a single mechanism controls both transitions; candidates include both lithospheric and asthenospheric processes.

Yale, MM, Sandwell DT.  1999.  Stacked global satellite gravity profiles. Geophysics. 64:1748-1755.   10.1190/1.1444680   AbstractWebsite

Gravity field recovery from satellite altimetry provides global marine coverage but lacks the accuracy and resolution needed for many exploration geophysics studies. The repeating ground tracks of the ERS-1/2, Geosat, and Topex/Poseidon altimeters offer the possibility of improving the accuracy and resolution of gravity anomalies along widely spaced (similar to 40-km spacing) tracks. However, complete ocean coverage is usually needed to convert the sea-surface height (br along-track slope) measurements into gravity anomalies. Here we develop and test a method for constructing stacked gravity profiles by using a published global gravity grid (Sandwell and Smith, 1997), V7.2, as a reference model for the slope-to-gravity anomaly conversion. The method is applied to stacks (averages) of Geosat/ERM (up to 62 cycles), ERS-1/2 (up to 43 cycles), and Topex (up to 142 cycles) satellite altimeter profiles. We assess the accuracies of the ERS-1/2 profiles through a comparison with a gravity model of the northern Gulf of Mexico (profiles provided by EDCON Inc.). The 40 ERS profiles evaluated have a mean rms difference of 3.77 mGal and full wavelength resolution (0.5 coherence) of 24 km. Our processing retains wavelengths as short as 10 km so smaller, large-amplitude features can be resolved, especially in shallow ocean areas (<1000 m deep). We provide an example of combining these higher resolution profiles with lower resolution gravity data in the Caspian Sea.