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McKenzie, D, Ford PG, Johnson C, Parsons B, Sandwell D, Saunders S, Solomon SC.  1992.  Features on Venus Generated by Plate Boundary Processes. Journal of Geophysical Research-Planets. 97:13533-13544.   10.1029/92JE01350   AbstractWebsite

Various observations suggest that there are processes on Venus that produce features similar to those associated with plate boundaries on Earth. Synthetic aperture radar images of Venus, taken with a radar whose wavelength is 12.6 cm, are compared with GLORIA images of active plate boundaries, obtained with a sound source whose wavelength is 23 cm. Features similar to transform faults and to abyssal hills on slow and fast spreading ridges can be recognized within the Artemis region of Venus but are not clearly visible elsewhere. The composition of the basalts measured by the Venera 13 and 14 and the Vega 2 spacecraft corresponds to that expected from adiabatic decompression, like that which occurs beneath spreading ridges on Earth. Structures that resemble trenches are widespread on Venus and show the same curvature and asymmetry as they do on Earth. These observations suggest that the same simple geophysical models that have been so successfully used to understand the tectonics of Earth can also be applied to Venus.

Keating, B, Cherkis NZ, Fell PW, Handschmacher D, Hey RN, Lazarewicz A, Naar DF, Perry RK, Sandwell D, Schwank DC, Vogt P, Zondek B.  1984.  Field-Tests of Seasat Bathymetric Detections. Marine Geophysical Researches. 7:69-71.   10.1007/bf00305411   AbstractWebsite

Knowledge of the locations and sizes of seamounts is of great importance in applications such as inertial navigation and ocean mining. The quality and density of bathymetry data in the equatorial regions and the southern hemisphere are, unifortunately, highly variable. Our present knowledge of bathymetry, and in particular of seamount locations and characteristics, is based upon ship surveys, which are both time-consuming and expensive. It is likely that a significant number of uncharted seamounts exist throughout the oceans, and remote-sensing techniques may be the most effective means of locating them.

Sandwell, DT, Schubert G.  1992.  Flexural Ridges, Trenches, and Outer Rises around Coronae on Venus. Journal of Geophysical Research-Planets. 97:16069-16083.   10.1029/92JE01274   AbstractWebsite

High-resolution altimetry collected by the Magellan spacecraft reveals trench and outer rise topographic signatures around major coronae (e.g. Eithinoha, Heng-0, Artemis, and Latona). In addition, Magellan synthetic aperature radar images show circumferential fractures in areas where the plates are curved downward. Both observations suggest that the lithosphere around coronae is flexed downward by the weight of the overriding coronal rim or by the negative buoyancy of subducted lithosphere. We have modelled the trench and outer rise topography as a thin elastic plate subjected to a line load and bending moment beneath die corona rim. The approach was tested at northern Freyja Montes where the best fit elastic thickness is 18 km, in agreement with previously published results. The elastic thicknesses determined by modelling numerous profiles at Eithinoha, Heng-0, Artemis, and Latona are 15, 40, 37, and 35 km, respectively. At Eithinoha, Artemis, and Latona where the plates appear to be yielding, the maximum bending moments and elastic thicknesses are similar to those found at the Middle America, Mariana, and Aleutian trenches on Earth, respectively. Estimates of effective elastic thickness and plate curvature are used with a yield strength envelope model of the lithosphere to estimate lithospheric temperature gradients. At Heng-0, Artemis, and Latona, temperature gradients are less than 10 K/km, which correspond to conductive heat losses of less than one half the expected average planetary value. We propose two scenarios for the creation of the ridge, trench, and outer rise topography: differential thermal subsidence and lithospheric subduction. The topography of Heng-0 is well matched by the differential thermal subsidence model. However, at Artemis and Latona the amplitudes of the trench and outer rise signatures are a factor of 5 too large to be explained by thermal subsidence alone. In these cases we favor the lithospheric subduction model wherein the lithosphere outboard of the corona perimeter subducts (rolls back) and the corona diameter increase.

McAdoo, DC, Sandwell DT.  1985.  Folding of Oceanic Lithosphere. Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth and Planets. 90:8563-8569.   10.1029/JB090iB10p08563   AbstractWebsite

Folding of the lithosphere just south of the Bay of Bengal appears as (1) undulations in acoustic basement topography and (2) as linear geoid undulations in the Seasat altimeter data. From the Seasat data we find that the east-west trending folds have wavelengths ranging from 130 to 250 km and clustering about 190 km. The horizontal gravity disturbances due to the folds range in amplitude from 15 to 50 mGal. Elastic models of oceanic lithosphere have, in the past, been used to demonstrate the implausibility of lithosphere buckling, or folding, in response to compression. These elastic models typically predict that compressive stresses of about 5 GPa are required to buckle oceanic lithosphere with an age comparable to that of the northeastern Indian Ocean (40–70 Ma). These stresses exceed the strength of lithospheric rock. We use an elastic-plastic model to show that oceanic lithosphere of this age should have a net compressive strength equal to about 12% of the elastic buckling stress. We further demonstrate that loads approaching the net compressive strength cause the lithosphere to fold with a wavelength about 200 km, i.e., the wavelength observed from Seasat. Our results reinforce earlier speculation that this folding may be related to the Himalayan orogeny.

Atwater, T, Sclater J, Sandwell D, Severinghaus J, Marlow M.  1993.  Fracture zone traces across the North Pacific Cretaceous Quiet Zone and their tectonic implications. The Mesozoic Pacific : geology, tectonics, and volcanism : a volume in memory of Sy Schlanger. ( Pringle MS, Sager WW, Sliter WV, Stein S, Eds.).:137-154., Washington, DC: American Geophysical Union Abstract
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Cheney, RE, Douglas BC, McAdoo DC, Sandwell DT.  1986.  Geodetic and oceanographic applications of satellite altimetry. Space geodesy and geodynamics. ( Anderson A, Cazenave A, Eds.)., London, United Kingdom (GBR): Academic Press, London AbstractWebsite
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Crowell, BW, Bock Y, Sandwell DT, Fialko Y.  2013.  Geodetic investigation into the deformation of the Salton Trough. Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth. 118:5030-5039.   10.1002/jgrb.50347   AbstractWebsite

The Salton Trough represents a complex transition between the spreading center in Baja California and the strike-slip San Andreas fault system and is one of the most active zones of deformation and seismicity in California. We present a high-resolution interseismic velocity field for the Salton Trough derived from 74 continuous GPS sites and 109 benchmarks surveyed in three GPS campaigns during 2008-2009 and previous surveys between 2000 and 2005. We also investigate small-scale deformation by removing the regional velocity field predicted by an elastic block model for Southern California from the observed velocities. We find a total extension rate of 11mm/yr from the Mesquite Basin to the southern edge of the San Andreas Fault, coupled with 15mm/yr of left-lateral shear, the majority of which is concentrated in the southern Salton Sea and Obsidian Buttes and is equivalent to 17mm/yr oriented in the direction of the San Andreas Fault. Differential shear strain is exclusively localized in the Brawley Seismic Zone, and dilatation rate indicates widespread extension throughout the zone. In addition, we infer clockwise rotation of 10 degrees/Ma, consistent with northwestward propagation of the Brawley Seismic Zone over geologic time.

Sandwell, D, Schubert G.  1980.  Geoid Height Versus Age for Symmetric Spreading Ridges. Journal of Geophysical Research. 85:7235-7241.   10.1029/JB085iB12p07235   AbstractWebsite

Geoid height-age relations have been extracted from Geos 3 altimeter data for large areas in the North Atlantic, South Atlantic, southeast Indian, and southeast Pacific oceans. Except for the southeast Pacific area, geoid height decreases approximately linearly with the age of the ocean floor for ages less than about 80 m.y. in agreement with the prediction of an isostatically compensated thermal boundary layer model (Haxby and Turcotte, 1978). The geoid-age data for 0 to 80 m.y. are consistent with constant slopes of −0.094±0.025, −0.131±0.041, and −0.149±0.028 m/m.y. for the South Atlantic, southeast Indian, and North Atlantic regions, respectively. For ages greater than 80 m.y. the geoid-age relation for the North Atlantic is nearly flat, indicating a reduction in the rate of boundary layer thickening with age. The uncertainties in the geoid slope-age estimates are positively correlated with spreading velocity.

Sandwell, DT, Mackenzie KR.  1989.  Geoid Height Versus Topography for Oceanic Plateaus and Swells. Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth and Planets. 94:7403-7418.   10.1029/JB094iB06p07403   AbstractWebsite

Oceanic plateaus and swells are a major component of the seafloor topography, yet they remain among the most poorly understood features. This is especially true of the oceanic plateaus which show large variations in crustal thickness. To determine the depth and mode of compensation for 53 of the largest plateaus and swells, we analyzed the relationship between geoid height and topography in polygonal areas containing each feature. Both geoid height and topography were first band-pass filtered (400 km < l < 4000 km) to isolate the signal associated with local compensation from flexural and deep mantle signals. The ratio of geoid height to topography was then determined by fitting a straight line to the data. Except for nine of the smaller features there is a high correlation between geoid height and topography that is positive in accordance with Airy and thermal compensation models. Eighteen features have high geoid/topography ratios that cannot be explained by the Airy compensation model of crustal thickening. These features (thermal swells) are partially supported by thermal buoyancy forces in the lower half of the lithosphere. The ratios are highest for active hot spot swells and decay, with the thermal age of the swell, to values consistent with Airy compensation of the enduring volcanic edifice. The remaining features (plateaus) have lower geoid/topography ratios in agreement with the Airy compensation model. Those plateaus with average height greater than 4 km are thought to be continental fragments; the shorter plateaus tend to be volcanic features. Modified continental plateaus, presumably small fragments of extended and intruded continental margin crust, cluster around heights of ∼3 km, overlapping the range associated with oceanic plateaus. Since the origin of many plateaus is poorly understood, this global geoid/topography analysis provides a new technique for comparing the deep structure of oceanic plateaus and swells.

Sandwell, DT, Schubert G.  1982.  Geoid Height-Age Relation from Seasat Altimeter Profiles across the Mendocino Fracture-Zone. Journal of Geophysical Research. 87:3949-3958.   10.1029/JB087iB05p03949   AbstractWebsite

Twenty-eight SEASAT altimeter profiles crossing the Mendocino Fracture Zone are used together with seafloor ages determined from magnetic lineations to estimate the change in oceanic geoid height with age, between ages of 15 and 135 m.y. An unbiased estimate of the overall geoid offset along each profile is determined from a least-squares fit of the along-track derivative of the geoid to the geoid slope predicted from a simple two-layer gravitational edge effect model. Uncertainties based upon the statistical properties of each profile are also determined. A geoid slope-age relation is constructed by normalizing the geoid offsets and uncertainties by the age offsets. The results are in agreement with geoid slope-age relations determined from symmetrically spreading ridges (Sandwell and Schubert, 1980). However, the fracture zone estimates have smaller uncertainties and show less scatter. A comparison of these results with the geoid slope-age prediction of the boundary layer cooling model shows that the thermal structure begins to deviate from this model at an early age (20–40 m.y.). A plate cooling model with a thickness of 125 km is most compatible with the geoid slope-age estimates, although significant deviations occur; these may indicate that the lithospheric thermal structure is not entirely age dependent.

Sandwell, DT.  1991.  Geophysical Applications of Satellite Altimetry. Reviews of Geophysics. 29:132-137. AbstractWebsite
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Becker, JJ, Sandwell DT, Smith WHF, Braud J, Binder B, Depner J, Fabre D, Factor J, Ingalls S, Kim SH, Ladner R, Marks K, Nelson S, Pharaoh A, Trimmer R, Von Rosenberg J, Wallace G, Weatherall P.  2009.  Global Bathymetry and Elevation Data at 30 Arc Seconds Resolution: SRTM30_PLUS. Marine Geodesy. 32:355-371.   10.1080/01490410903297766   AbstractWebsite

A new 30-arc second resolution global topography/bathymetry grid (SRTM30_PLUS) has been developed from a wide variety of data sources. Land and ice topography comes from the SRTM30 and ICESat topography, respectively. Ocean bathymetry is based on a new satellite-gravity model where the gravity-to-topography ratio is calibrated using 298 million edited soundings. The main contribution of this study is the compilation and editing of the raw soundings, which come from NOAA, individual scientists, SIO, NGA, JAMSTEC, IFREMER, GEBCO, and NAVOCEANO. The gridded bathymetry is available for ftp download in the same format as the 33 tiles of SRTM30 topography. There are 33 matching tiles of source identification number to convey the provenance of every grid cell. The raw sounding data, converted to a simple common format, are also available for ftp download.

Gille, ST, Yale MM, Sandwell DT.  2000.  Global correlation of mesoscale ocean variability with seafloor roughness from satellite altimetry. Geophysical Research Letters. 27:1251-1254.   10.1029/1999gl007003   AbstractWebsite

Both seafloor bathymetry and eddy kinetic energy at the ocean surface can be estimated by making use of satellite altimeters. Comparing the two quantities shows that in regions of the ocean deeper than about 4800 m, surface eddy kinetic energy is greater over smooth abyssal plains than over rough bathymetry, while the opposite is true in shallower waters. Thus in the deep ocean, bottom roughness may dissipate eddy kinetic energy. A simple model indicates that the dissipation rate increases as root-mean-squared bottom roughness increases from 0 to 250 m and decreases to negative values (implying eddy generation) for higher roughness.

Craig, CH, Sandwell DT.  1988.  Global Distribution of Seamounts from Seasat Profiles. Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth and Planets. 93:10408-10420.   10.1029/JB093iB09p10408   AbstractWebsite

Bathymetry profiles and contour charts have been used to study the distribution of seamounts in the deep ocean basins, but only a small fraction of the seafloor has been sampled by ships. At the present exploration rate it will take several centuries to map significant portions of the seafloor topography. Satellite altimetry, which maps the topography of the equipotential sea surface, is a promising tool for studying the gravity fields of seamounts because all ocean basins can be sampled in a couple of years. Using a model of a Gaussian-shaped seamount loading a thin elastic lithosphere, we develop a new technique for measuring basic characteristics of a seamount from a single satellite altimeter profile. The model predicts that the seamount diameter is equal to the peak-to-trough distance along the vertical deflection profile and that the overall diameter of the signature reveals the age of the lithosphere when the seamount formed. Moreover, the model suggests that these two measurements are relatively insensitive to the cross-track location of the seamount. We confirm these model predictions using Seasat altimeter profiles crossing 14 well surveyed seamounts in the Pacific. We then apply the measurement technique to 26 × 106 million kilometers of Seasat profiles resulting in a new global set of seamount locations. Approximately one quarter of the seamounts identified in Seasat profiles were previously uncharted. Modeling suggests that there is no direct relationship between the size of a seamount and its signature in the geoid; therefore the set of locations is not a straightforward sampling of the total seamount population, but is weighted toward seamounts which are poorly compensated. A preliminary analysis indicates considerable variations in population density and type across the oceans; most notable among them are the absence of seamounts in the Atlantic, variations in population density across large age-offset fracture zones in the Pacific, the prevalence of small signatures in the Indian Ocean, and the existence of linear trends in the large seamounts of the west Pacific.

Becker, JJ, Sandwell DT.  2008.  Global estimates of seafloor slope from single-beam ship soundings. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans. 113   10.1029/2006jc003879   AbstractWebsite

Rough topography on the ocean floor is a source of ocean mixing which is of interest to both physical oceanography and climate science. Most mixing has been attributed to high slopes of the large-scale structures of the deep ocean floor such as seamounts, continental margins, and mid-ocean ridge axes. In this paper, we show the small-scale but ubiquitous abyssal hills and fracture zones dominate the global map of rough topography. Much of this rugged seafloor occurs in the Southern Ocean on the flanks of the Pacific-Antarctic Rise and Southwest Indian Ridge. We present our results as a global map of the mean slope of the ocean floor, and as a global map of the ocean floor above the M(2) critical slope. We compare our results to multibeam and satellite bathymetry data to show that satellite bathymetry is not a valid proxy for multibeam measurements, but edited single-beam sonar data are adequate to provide a global perspective on features with horizontal wavelengths as small as 2 km.

Watts, AB, Sandwell DT, Smith WHF, Wessel P.  2006.  Global gravity, bathymetry, and the distribution of submarine volcanism through space and time. Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth. 111   10.1029/2005jb004083   AbstractWebsite

[ 1] The seafloor is characterized by numerous seamounts and oceanic islands which are mainly volcanic in origin. Relatively few of these features (< similar to 0.1%), however, have been dated, and so little is known about their tectonic setting. One parameter that is sensitive to whether a seamount formed on, near, or far from a mid-ocean ridge is the elastic thickness, T(e), which is a proxy for the long-term strength of the lithosphere. Most previous studies are based on using the bathymetry to calculate the gravity anomaly for different values of T(e) and then comparing the calculated and observed gravity anomaly. The problem with such an approach is that bathymetry data are usually limited to single-beam echo sounder data acquired along a ship track and these data are too sparse to define seamount shape. We therefore use the satellite-derived gravity anomaly to predict the bathymetry for different values of T(e). By comparing the predicted bathymetry to actual shipboard soundings in the vicinity of each locality in the Wessel global seamount database, we have obtained 9758 T(e) estimates from a wide range of submarine volcanic features in the Pacific, Indian, and Atlantic oceans. Comparisons where there are previous estimates show that bathymetric prediction is a robust way to estimate T(e) and its upper and lower bounds. T(e) at sites where there is both a sample and crustal age show considerable scatter, however, and there is no simple relationship between T(e) and age. Nevertheless, we are able to tentatively assign a tectonic setting to each T(e) estimate. The most striking results are in the Pacific Ocean where a broad swath of "on-ridge'' volcanism extends from the Foundation seamounts and Ducie Island/Easter Island ridge in the southeast, across the equator, to the Shatsky and Hess rises in the northwest. Interspersed among the on-ridge volcanism are "flank ridge'' and "off-ridge'' features. The Indian and Atlantic oceans also show a mix of tectonic settings. Off-ridge volcanism dominates in the eastern North Atlantic and northeast Indian oceans, while flank ridge volcanism dominates the northeastern Indian and western south Atlantic oceans. We have been unable to assign the flank ridge and off-ridge estimates an age, but the on-ridge estimates generally reflect, we believe, the age of the underlying oceanic crust. We estimate the volume of on-ridge volcanism to be similar to 1.1 x 10(6) km(3) which implies a mean seamount addition rate of similar to 0.007 km(3) yr(-1). Rates appear to have varied through geological time, reaching their peak during the Late/Early Cretaceous and then declining to the present-day.

Sandwell, DT, Smith WHF.  2009.  Global marine gravity from retracked Geosat and ERS-1 altimetry: Ridge segmentation versus spreading rate. Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth. 114   10.1029/2008jb006008   AbstractWebsite

Three approaches are used to reduce the error in the satellite-derived marine gravity anomalies. First, we have retracked the raw waveforms from the ERS-1 and Geosat/GM missions resulting in improvements in range precision of 40% and 27%, respectively. Second, we have used the recently published EGM2008 global gravity model as a reference field to provide a seamless gravity transition from land to ocean. Third, we have used a biharmonic spline interpolation method to construct residual vertical deflection grids. Comparisons between shipboard gravity and the global gravity grid show errors ranging from 2.0 mGal in the Gulf of Mexico to 4.0 mGal in areas with rugged seafloor topography. The largest errors of up to 20 mGal occur on the crests of narrow large seamounts. The global spreading ridges are well resolved and show variations in ridge axis morphology and segmentation with spreading rate. For rates less than about 60 mm/a the typical ridge segment is 50-80 km long while it increases dramatically at higher rates (100-1000 km). This transition spreading rate of 60 mm/a also marks the transition from axial valley to axial high. We speculate that a single mechanism controls both transitions; candidates include both lithospheric and asthenospheric processes.

Sandwell, DT, Zhang B.  1989.  Global Mesoscale Variability from the Geosat Exact Repeat Mission - Correlation with Ocean Depth. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans. 94:17971-17984.   10.1029/JC094iC12p17971   AbstractWebsite

We have developed a new technique for extracting global mesoscale variability from satellite altimeter profiles having large radial orbit error (∼3 m). Long-wavelength radial orbit error, as well as other long-wavelength errors (e.g., tides, ionospheric-atmospheric delay, and electromagnetic bias), are suppressed by taking the derivative (slope) of each altimeter profile. A low-pass filter is used to suppress the short-wavelength altimeter noise (λ<100 km). Twenty-two repeat slope profiles are then averaged to produce a mean sea surface slope profile having a precision of about 0.1 μrad. Variations in sea surface slope, which are proportional to changes in current velocity, are obtained by differencing individual profiles from the average profile. Slopes due to mesoscale dynamic topography are typically 1 μrad (i.e., a 0.1-m change in topography over a 100-km distance). Root-mean-square (rms) slope variability as low as 0.2 μrad are found in the southeast Pacific, and maximum slope variations up to 6–8 μrad are found in major western boundary currents (e.g., Gulf Stream, Kuroshio, Falkland, and Agulhas) and Antarctic Circum-polar Current (ACC) systems. The global rms variability map shows previously unknown spatial details that are highly correlated with seafloor topography. Over most areas, the rms slope variability is less than 1 μrad. However at mid-latitudes, areas of higher variability occur in deep water (>3 km) adjacent to continental shelves, spreading ridges, and oceanic plateaus. Variability is low in shallower areas (<3 km). Along the ACC, the meso-scale variability appears to be organized by the many shallow areas in its path. We do not see convincing evidence that variability is higher downstream from topographic protrusions. Instead, the areas of highest variability occur in the deep basins (>4km).

Sandwell, DT, Milbert DG, Douglas BC.  1986.  Global Nondynamic Orbit Improvement for Altimetric Satellites. Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth and Planets. 91:9447-9451.   10.1029/JB091iB09p09447   AbstractWebsite

The largest source of error in satellite altimetry is in the radial position of the satellite. Radial orbit errors of more than a few decimeters prohibit basin-scale studies of sea surface height variability. We explore nondynamic techniques for reducing this error. Sea surface height differences at intersections of satellite altimeter profiles (crossover data) provide a strong constraint on radial orbit error but do not uniquely define it. The portion of orbit error that is a function of latitude and longitude only produces no crossover differences and therefore cannot be recovered with crossover data. Using mathematics (inclination functions) originally developed for satellite dynamics, we determine the entire class of orbit error functions not recoverable with crossover data. These functions are mappings of surface spherical harmonics into the orbit plane. For example, the l = 1, m = 0 surface harmonic maps into sinusoidal orbit error with a frequency of once per orbit. Nonzonal harmonics map into linear combinations of three or more frequencies that are linked by the inclination functions. Between frequencies of 0 and 2.2 cycles per orbit there are nine orbit error components that cannot be recovered using crossover data. These components are uniquely defined, however, by nine globally distributed radial tracking points. Fewer tracking points are sufficient if a smoothness criteria is applied to the orbit correction curve. Our findings suggest that radial orbit error can be significantly reduced by including a few globally distributed radar reflectors (or transponders) in the tracking network.

Smith, WHF, Sandwell DT.  1997.  Global sea floor topography from satellite altimetry and ship depth soundings. Science. 277:1956-1962.   10.1126/science.277.5334.1956   AbstractWebsite

A digital bathymetric map of the oceans with a horizontal resolution of 1 to 12 kilometers was derived by combining available depth soundings with high-resolution marine gravity information from the Geosat and ERS-1 spacecraft. Previous global bathymetric maps lacked features such as the 1600-kilometer-long Foundation Seamounts chain in the South Pacific. This map shows relations among the distributions of depth, sea floor area, and sea floor age that do not fit the predictions of deterministic models of subsidence due to lithosphere cooling but may be explained by a stochastic model in which randomly distributed reheating events warm the lithosphere and raise the ocean floor.

Wessel, P, Sandwell DT, Kim SS.  2010.  The Global Seamount Census. Oceanography. 23:24-33. AbstractWebsite

Seamounts are active or extinct undersea volcanoes with heights exceeding similar to 100 m. They represent a small but significant fraction of the volcanic extrusive budget for oceanic seafloor and their distribution gives information about spatial and temporal variations in intraplate volcanic activity. In addition, they sustain important ecological communities, determine habitats for fish, and act as obstacles to Currents, thus enhancing tidal energy dissipation and ocean mixing. Mapping the complete global distribution will help constrain models of seamount formation as well as aid in understanding marine habitats and deep ocean circulation. Two approaches have been used to map the global seamount distribution. Depth soundings from single- and multibeam echosounders can provide the most detailed maps with up to 200-m horizontal resolution. However, soundings from the > 5000 publicly available cruises sample only a small fraction of the ocean floor. Satellite altimetry can detect seamounts taller than similar to 1.5 km, and. studies using altimetry have produced seamount catalogues holding almost 13,000 seamounts. Based on the size-frequency relationship for larger seamounts, we predict over 100,000 seamounts > 1 km in height remain uncharted, and speculatively 25 million > 100 m in height. Future altimetry missions could improve on resolution and significantly decrease noise levels, allowing for an even larger number of intermediate (1-1.5-km height) seamounts to be detected. Recent retracking of the radar altimeter waveforms to improve the accuracy of the gravity field has resulted in a twofold increase in resolution. Thus, improved analyses of existing altimetry with better calibration from multibeam bathymetry could also increase census estimates.

Schubert, G, Sandwell DT.  1995.  A Global Survey of Possible Subduction Sites on Venus. Icarus. 117:173-196.   10.1006/icar.1995.1150   AbstractWebsite

About 10,000 km of trenches in chasmata and coronae have been identified as possible sites of retrograde subduction on Venus. All the sites have narrow deep trenches elongate along strike with arcuate planforms, ridge-trench-outer rise topographic profiles typical of terrestrial subduction zones, large outer rise curvatures >10(-7) m(-1), fractures parallel to the strike of the trench on the outer trench wall and outer rise, and no cross-strike fractures across the trench. Both the northern and southern margins of Latona Corona are possible subduction sites. Identification of a major graben between the two principal outer ridges in southern Latona Corona is evidence of back-are extension in the corona; the amount of extension is estimated to be more than 2-11 km. The moment exerted by the ridges of southern Latona Corona is insufficient to bend the lithosphere into the observed outer rise shape; a negatively buoyant subducted or underthrust slab is needed. Depending on the unknown trench migration rate, lithospheric subduction can make a significant contribution to mantle cooling on Venus. Venusian chasmata could have a dual character. They may be propagating rifts near major volcanic rises, and subduction trenches far from the rises in the lowlands. Subduction and rifting may occur in close proximity on Venus, unlike on Earth. Rifting induced by hotspots on Venus may be necessary to break the lithosphere and allow subduction to occur. Such a process could result in gradual lithospheric subduction or global, episodic overturn of the lithosphere. (C) 1995 Academic Press, Inc.

Muller, RD, Qin XD, Sandwell DT, Dutkiewicz A, Williams SE, Flament N, Maus S, Seton M.  2016.  The GPlates Portal: Cloud-based interactive 3D visualization of global geophysical and geological data in a web browser. Plos One. 11   10.1371/journal.pone.0150883   AbstractWebsite

The pace of scientific discovery is being transformed by the availability of 'big data' and open access, open source software tools. These innovations open up new avenues for how scientists communicate and share data and ideas with each other and with the general public. Here, we describe our efforts to bring to life our studies of the Earth system, both at present day and through deep geological time. The GPlates Portal (portal.gplates.org) is a gateway to a series of virtual globes based on the Cesium Javascript library. The portal allows fast interactive visualization of global geophysical and geological data sets, draped over digital terrain models. The globes use WebGL for hardware-accelerated graphics and are cross-platform and cross-browser compatible with complete camera control. The globes include a visualization of a high-resolution global digital elevation model and the vertical gradient of the global gravity field, highlighting small-scale seafloor fabric such as abyssal hills, fracture zones and seamounts in unprecedented detail. The portal also features globes portraying seafloor geology and a global data set of marine magnetic anomaly identifications. The portal is specifically designed to visualize models of the Earth through geological time. These space-time globes include tectonic reconstructions of the Earth's gravity and magnetic fields, and several models of long-wavelength surface dynamic topography through time, including the interactive plotting of vertical motion histories at selected locations. The globes put the on-the-fly visualization of massive data sets at the fingertips of end-users to stimulate teaching and learning and novel avenues of inquiry.

Schubert, G, Moore WB, Sandwell DT.  1994.  Gravity over Coronae and Chasmata on Venus. Icarus. 112:130-146.   10.1006/icar.1994.1174   AbstractWebsite

The global spherical harmonic model of Venus' gravity field MGNP60FSAAP, with horizontal resolution of about 600 km, shows that most coronae have little or no signature in the gravity field. Nevertheless, some coronae and some segments of chasmata are associated with distinct positive gravity anomalies. No corona has been found to have a negative gravity anomaly. The spatial coincidence of the gravity highs over four closely spaced 300- to 400-km-diameter coronae in Eastern Eistla Regio with the structures themselves is remarkable and argues for a near-surface or lithospheric origin of the gravity signals over such relatively small features. Apparent depths of compensation (ADCs) of the prominent gravity anomalies at Artemis, Latona, and Heng-o Coronae are about 150 to 200 km. The geoid/topography ratios (GTRs) at Artemis, Latona, and Heng-o Coronae lie in the range 32 to 35 m km(-1). The large ADCs and GTRs of Artemis, Latona, and Heng-o Coronae are consistent with topographically related gravity and a thick Venus lithosphere or shallowly compensated topography and deep positive mass anomalies due to subduction or underthrusting at these coronae. At arcuate segments of Hecate and Parga Chasmata ADCs are about 125 to 150 km, while those at Fatua Corona, four coronae in Eastern Eistla Regio, and an arcuate segment of Western Parga Chasma are about 75 km. The GTRs at Fatua Corona, the four coronae in eastern Eistla Regio, and the arcuate segments of Hecate, Parga, and Western Parga Chasmata are about 12 to 21 m km(-1). The ADCs and GTRs of these coronae and arcuate chasmata segments are generally too large to reflect compensation by crustal thickness variations. Instead, they suggest compensation by thermally induced thickness variations in a moderately thick (approximate to 100 km) lithosphere. Alternatively, the gravity signals at these sites could originate from deep positive mass anomalies due to subduction or underthrusting. Weighted linear least squares fits to GTR vs h (long-wavelength topography) data from Heng-o and Fatua Coronae, the four coronae in eastern Eistla Regio, and the arcuate segments of Hecate, Parga, and western Parga Chasmata are consistent with compensation by thermally induced thickness variations of a dense lithosphere above a less dense mantle; the fits imply an average lithosphere thickness of about 180 km and an excess lithospheric density of about 0.5 to 0.7%. Gravity anomalies at the arcuate segments of Dali and Diana Chasmata that form Latona Corona, at Artemis Chasma, and other arcuate segments of Parga and Hecate Chasmata occur on the concave sides of the arcs. By analogy with gravity anomalies of similar horizontal scale (600 km-several thousand kilometers) on the concave sides of terrestrial subduction zone arcs, which are due in large part to subducted lithosphere, it is inferred that the gravity anomalies on Venus are consistent with retrograde subduction at Artemis Chasma, along the northern and southern margins of Latona Corona, and elsewhere along Parga and Hecate Chasmata. (C) 1994 Academic Press, Inc.

Wagner, CA, Sandwell DT.  1984.  The Gravsat Signal over Tectonic Features. Journal of Geophysical Research. 89:4419-4426.   10.1029/JB089iB06p04419   AbstractWebsite

The range rate between two close gravitational satellites (GRAVSAT) in low earth orbit has been evaluated over model tectonic features such as mountains and ranges, fracture zones, and trenches. Models are locally compensated and consist of both point mass dipoles and sheet mass dipoles. Masses and depths of compensation are chosen to approximate known gravity signatures. The results show that for two satellites at 160 km altitude with 3° separation, significant signal power (>1 μm/s) remains for most extended features at wavelengths less than 200 km. Furthermore, there is strong sensitivity in the signal from these features to lateral and vertical changes of the order of 1 km and less. In addition, the signal of hidden geologic structures such as dikes, salt domes, and ore bodies may also stand above 1 μm/s for this low orbiting pair. Thus, it may prove to be efficient to model the high-frequency GRAVSAT signal directly in terms of the parameters of tectonic-topographic features and their compensation.