Phase gradient approach to stacking interferograms

Citation:
Sandwell, DT, Price EJ.  1998.  Phase gradient approach to stacking interferograms. Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth. 103:30183-30204.

Date Published:

Dec

Keywords:

california, ers-1, eureka valley, field, interferometry, landers earthquake, resolution, SAR, surface deformation, synthetic-aperture radar

Abstract:

The phase gradient approach is used to construct averages and differences of interferograms without phase unwrapping. Our objectives for change detection are to increase fringe clarity and decrease errors due to tropospheric and ionospheric delay by averaging many interferograms. The standard approach requires phase unwrapping, scaling the phase according to the ratio of the perpendicular baseline, and finally forming the average or difference; however, unique phase unwrapping is usually not possible. Since the phase gradient due to topography is proportional to the perpendicular baseline, phase unwrapping is unnecessary prior to averaging or differencing. Phase unwrapping may be needed to interpret the results, but it is delayed until all of the largest topographic signals are removed. We demonstrate the method by averaging and differencing six interferograms having a suite of perpendicular baselines ranging from 18 to 406 m. Cross-spectral analysis of the difference between two Tandem interferograms provides estimates of spatial resolution, which are used to design prestack filters. A wide range of perpendicular baselines provides the best topographic recovery in terms of accuracy and coverage. Outside of mountainous areas the topography has a relative accuracy of better than 2 m. Residual interferograms (single interferogram minus stack) have tilts across the unwrapped phase that are typically 50 mm in both range and azimuth, reflecting both orbit error and atmospheric delay. Smaller-scale waves with amplitudes of 15 mm are interpreted as atmospheric lee waves. A few Global Positioning System (GPS) control points within a Game could increase the precision to similar to 20 mm for a single interferogram; further improvements may be achieved by stacking residual interferograms.

Notes:

n/a

Website

DOI:

10.1029/1998jb900008