Climatological monthly heat and freshwater flux estimates on a global scale from Argo

Giglio, D, Roemmich D.  2014.  Climatological monthly heat and freshwater flux estimates on a global scale from Argo. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans. 119:6884-6899.

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air-sea flux, ARGO, climatology, Energy budget, freshwater flux, heat flux, monthly, ocean, pacific, reanalysis, seasonal cycle, storage rates, system


The global pattern of climatological monthly heat and freshwater fluxes at the ocean surface is estimated using Argo temperature and salinity profile data for the period 2004-2013. Temperature or salinity changes are calculated in a volume of water above an isopycnal that is below the mixed layer and not subject to mixed-layer entrainment. Horizontal advection components from geostrophic velocity and from Ekman transport, based on wind stress, are also included. The climatological monthly heat or freshwater flux at the ocean surface is estimated as the sum of advective and time tendency contributions. The air-sea flux estimates from Argo are described in global maps and basin-wide integrals, in comparison to atmospheric reanalysis data and to air-sea flux products based on observations. This ocean-based estimate of surface fluxes is consistent with property variations in the subsurface ocean and indicates greater amplitude for the climatological monthly heat flux values in the subtropics compared to other products. Similarly, the combination of Argo freshwater flux and reanalysis evaporation, suggests greater amplitude for climatological monthly precipitation in the tropics.