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de Moor, JM, Fischer TP, Hilton DR, Hauri E, Jaffe LA, Camacho JT.  2005.  Degassing at Anatahan volcano during the May 2003 eruption: Implications from petrology, ash leachates, and SO2 emissions. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 146:117-138.   10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2004.11.034   AbstractWebsite

On 10 May 2003, Anatahan volcano (located at 16 degrees 2 F N 145 degrees 40' E on the Mariana arc) entered its first historical eruptive episode, sending ash to > 12 km into the atmosphere. Abundant accretionary lapilli, quenched pumice textures, and hydrothermal minerals in the earliest eruptive deposits indicate hydromagmatic interaction and active mining of the pre-eruptive hydrothermal system. Whole-rock compositions of the products erupted within the first week are chemically homogenous, with SiO2 similar to 61%, MgO similar to 2.1%, K2O similar to 1.4%, Na2O similar to 4.1 % and Fe2O3 similar to 9.1 %. The products are classified as medium-K andesites with tholeiitic affinity. Slightly more silicic matrix glass compositions (up to 63 % SiO2 in microlite-rich matrices) overlap with whole rock, suggesting limited crystal fractionation with microlite crystallization responsible for the more evolved residual melt. Decreasing corrected Lot values (2.3-1.4 wt.%) upsection are consistent with waning hydrothermal mineral contributions as the eruption progressed. Oxygen fugacity calculations based on the ferric to ferrous iron ratio of bulk samples indicate an oxidized magma with Delta NNO similar to +1 Two-pyroxene equilibrium thermometry suggests magmatic temperatures of 1050-1100 degrees C. Matrix glass volatile contents show a degassed residual melt, with < 0.5 wt.% H2O, 1000-2000 ppm Cl, 480-780 ppm F, 50-150 ppm S, and < 5 PPM CO2. A magmatic SO2 flux Of 3-4.5 kt/day was measured by COSPEC on 21 May. Ash leachate data indicate a decreasing S/Cl ratio (3.3-0.7) in the eruptive plume between 10 and 21 May, with a relatively constant Cl concentration. Assuming a constant Cl flux, an SO2 flux of 14-22 kt/day is calculated for 10 May. The average S concentration from ash leachates (1230 mg/kg) suggests that at least 25% of the SO2 (similar to 60 kt) erupted from Anatahan between 10 and 21 May was removed from the plume by the precipitation of sulphate salts in the eruption column, adsorbtion onto ash particles and subsequent deposition. Molar ratios in ash leachates elucidate CaSO4 and NaCl as the most likely soluble salts formed in the plume. Total element abundances, molar S/Ca > I and Ca, Mg, Na, and K ratios in the leachates suggest a hydrothermal fluid contribution to elements present as water soluble salts adsorbed onto ash. Sulfur budget calculations based on estimates of pre-eruptive magmatic and residual melt S contents, mass of erupted magma, and total SO2 output fluxes require an additional source of S other than the erupted magma. Multiple lines of evidence, including high SO2 emissions early in the eruption, the presence of accretionary lapilli and hydrothermal minerals in the early eruptive deposits, quenched pumice textures, and cation and anion ratios and abundances in ash leachates suggest that a S-rich free volatile phase exsolved from a large magma body. Magmatic volatiles were stored as components of the hydrothermal system (pressurized gases, hydrothermal fluids, and/or hydrothermal minerals) to be remobilized early in the eruption to contribute to the total SO2 output. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Geiger, H, Troll VR, Jolis EM, Deegan FM, Harris C, Hilton DR, Freda C.  2018.  Multi-level magma plumbing at Agung and Batur volcanoes increases risk of hazardous eruptions. Scientific Reports. 8   10.1038/s41598-018-28125-2   AbstractWebsite

The island of Bali in Indonesia is home to two active stratovolcanoes, Agung and Batur, but relatively little is known of their underlying magma plumbing systems. Here we define magma storage depths and isotopic evolution of the 1963 and 1974 eruptions using mineral-melt equilibrium thermobarometry and oxygen and helium isotopes in mineral separates. Olivine crystallised from a primitive magma and has average delta O-18 values of 4.8%. Clinopyroxene records magma storage at the crust-mantle boundary, and displays mantle-like isotope values for Helium (8.62 R-A) and delta O-18 (5.0-5.8%). Plagioclase reveals crystallisation in upper crustal storage reservoirs and shows delta O-18 values of 5.5-6.4%. Our new thermobarometry and isotope data thus corroborate earlier seismic and InSAR studies that inferred upper crustal magma storage in the region. This type of multi-level plumbing architecture could drive replenishing magma to rapid volatile saturation, thus increasing the likelihood of explosive eruptions and the consequent hazard potential for the population of Bali.