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Aagaard, K, Barrie L, Carmack E, Garrity C, Jones EP, Lubin D, Macdonald RW, Swift JH, Tucker W, Wheeler PA, Whritner R.  1996.  U.S., Canadian researchers explore Arctic Ocean. EOS, Transactions American Geophysical Union. 77:209,213.   10.1029/96EO00141   Abstract

During July–September 1994, two Canadian and U.S. ice breakers crossed the Arctic Ocean (Figure 1) to investigate the biological, chemical, and physical systems that define the role of the Arctic in global change. The results are changing our perceptions of the Arctic Ocean as a static environment with low biological productivity to a dynamic and productive system. The experiment was called the Arctic Ocean Section (AOS) and the ships were the Canadian Coast Guard ship Louis S. St.-Laurent and the U.S. Coast Guard cutter Polar Sea.

Arrigo, KR, Lubin D, van Dijken GL, Holm-Hansen O, Morrow E.  2003.  Impact of a deep ozone hole on Southern Ocean primary production. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans. 108   10.1029/2001jc001226   AbstractWebsite

[1] Field studies show that photosynthesis by Antarctic phytoplankton is inhibited by the increased ultraviolet radiation (UVR) resulting from springtime stratospheric ozone (O-3) depletion. To extend previous observations, a numerical model utilizing satellite-derived distributions of O-3, clouds, sea ice, surface temperature, and phytoplankton biomass was developed to study the hemispheric-scale seasonal effects of a deep Antarctic O-3 hole on primary production in the Southern Ocean. UVR-induced losses of surface phytoplankton production were substantial under all O-3 conditions, mostly due to UVA. However, when integrated to the 0.1% light depth, the loss of primary production resulting from enhanced fluxes of UVB due to O-3 depletion was <0.25%. The loss of primary production is minimized by the strong attenuation of UVR within the water column and by sea ice which is at its peak extent at the time of the most severe O-3 depletion.

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Bais, AF, Lubin D, Arola A, Bernhard G, Blumthaler M, Chubarova N, Erlick C, Gies HP, Krotkov NA, Lantz K, Mayer B, Mckenzie RL, d. Piacentini R, Seckmeyer G, Slusser JR, Zerefos CZ.  2007.  Surface Ultraviolet Radiation: Past, Present, and Future. Scientific assessment of ozone depletion: 2006. ( Organization W, Ed.)., Geneva, Switzerland: World Meteorological Organization Abstract
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Berque, J, Lubin D, Somerville RCJ.  2011.  Transect method for Antarctic cloud property retrieval using AVHRR data. International Journal of Remote Sensing. 32:2887-2903.   10.1080/01431161003745624   AbstractWebsite

For studies of Antarctic climate change, the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) offers a time series spanning more than two decades, with numerous overpasses per day from converging polar orbits, and with radiometrically calibrated thermal infrared channels. However, over the Antarctic Plateau, standard multispectral application of AVHRR data for cloud optical property retrieval with individual pixels is problematic due to poor scene contrasts and measurement uncertainties. We present a method that takes advantage of rapid changes in radiances at well-defined cloud boundaries. We examine a transect of AVHRR-measured radiances in the three thermal infrared channels across a boundary between cloudy and cloud-free parts of the image. Using scatter diagrams, made from the data along this transect, of the brightness temperature differences between channels 3 and 4, and channels 4 and 5, it is possible to fit families of radiative transfer solutions to the data to estimate cloud effective temperature, thermodynamic phase, and effective particle radius. The major approximation with this method is that along such a transect, cloud water path has considerable spatial variability, while effective radius, phase, and cloud temperature have much less variability. To illustrate this method, two AVHRR images centred about the South Pole are analysed. The two images are chosen based on their differing contrasts in brightness temperature between clear and cloud-filled pixels, to demonstrate that our method can work with varying cloud top heights. In one image the data are consistent with radiative transfer simulations using ice cloud. In the other, the data are inconsistent with ice cloud and are well simulated with supercooled liquid water cloud at 241.5 K. This method therefore has potential for climatological investigation of the radiatively important phase transition in the extremely cold and pristine Antarctic environment.

Berque, J, Lubin D, Somerville RCJ.  2004.  Infrared radiative properties of the Antarctic plateau from AVHRR data. Part I: Effect of the snow surface. Journal of Applied Meteorology. 43:350-362.   10.1175/1520-0450(2004)043<0350:irpota>2.0.co;2   AbstractWebsite

The effective scene temperature, or "brightness temperature," measured in channel 3 (3.5-3.9 m m) of the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) is shown to be sensitive, in principle, to the effective particle size of snow grains on the Antarctic plateau, over the range of snow grain sizes reported in field studies. In conjunction with a discrete ordinate method radiative transfer model that couples the polar atmosphere with a scattering and absorbing snowpack, the thermal infrared channels of the AVHRR instrument can, therefore, be used to estimate effective grain size at the snow surface over Antarctica. This is subject to uncertainties related to the modeled top-of-atmosphere bidirectional reflectance distribution function resulting from the possible presence of sastrugi and to lack of complete knowledge of snow crystal shapes and habits as they influence the scattering phase function. However, when applied to NOAA-11 and NOAA-12 AVHRR data from 1992, the snow grain effective radii of order 50 mum are retrieved, consistent with field observations, with no apparent discontinuity between two spacecraft having different viewing geometries. Retrieved snow grain effective radii are 10-20-mum larger when the snow grains are modeled as hexagonal solid columns rather than as spheres with a Henyey-Greenstein phase function. Despite the above-mentioned uncertainties, the retrievals are consistent enough that one should be able to monitor climatically significant changes in surface snow grain size due to major precipitation events. It is also shown that a realistic representation of the surface snow grain size is critical when retrieving the optical depth and effective particle radius of clouds for the optically thin clouds most frequently encountered over the Antarctic plateau.

Bromwich, DH, Nicolas JP, Hines KM, Kay JE, Key EL, Lazzara MA, Lubin D, McFarquhar GM, Gorodetskaya IV, Grosvenor DP, Lachlan-Cope T, van Lipzig NPM.  2012.  Tropospheric clouds in Antarctica. Reviews of Geophysics. 50   10.1029/2011rg000363   AbstractWebsite

Compared to other regions, little is known about clouds in Antarctica. This arises in part from the challenging deployment of instrumentation in this remote and harsh environment and from the limitations of traditional satellite passive remote sensing over the polar regions. Yet clouds have a critical influence on the ice sheet's radiation budget and its surface mass balance. The extremely low temperatures, absolute humidity levels, and aerosol concentrations found in Antarctica create unique conditions for cloud formation that greatly differ from those encountered in other regions, including the Arctic. During the first decade of the 21st century, new results from field studies, the advent of cloud observations from spaceborne active sensors, and improvements in cloud parameterizations in numerical models have contributed to significant advances in our understanding of Antarctic clouds. This review covers four main topics: (1) observational methods and instruments, (2) the seasonal and interannual variability of cloud amounts, (3) the microphysical properties of clouds and aerosols, and (4) cloud representation in global and regional numerical models. Aside from a synthesis of the existing literature, novel insights are also presented. A new climatology of clouds over Antarctica and the Southern Ocean is derived from combined measurements of the CloudSat and Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) satellites. This climatology is used to assess the forecast cloud amounts in 20th century global climate model simulations. While cloud monitoring over Antarctica from space has proved essential to the recent advances, the review concludes by emphasizing the need for additional in situ measurements.

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Collins, WD, Valero FPJ, Flatau PJ, Lubin D, Grassl H, Pilewskie P.  1996.  Radiative effects of convection in the tropical Pacific. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres. 101:14999-15012.   10.1029/95jd02534   AbstractWebsite

The radiative effects of tropical clouds at the tropopause and the ocean surface have been estimated by using in situ measurements from the Central Equatorial Pacific Experiment (CEPEX). The effect of clouds is distinguished from the radiative effects of the surrounding atmosphere by calculating the shortwave and longwave cloud forcing. These terms give the reduction in insolation and the increase in absorption of terrestrial thermal emission associated with clouds. At the tropopause the shortwave and longwave cloud forcing are nearly equal and opposite, even on daily timescales. Therefore the net effect of an ensemble of convective clouds is small compared to other radiative terms in the surface-tropospheric heat budget. This confirms the statistical cancellation of cloud forcing observed in Earth radiation budget measurements from satellites. At the surface the net effect of clouds is to reduce the radiant energy absorbed by the ocean. Under deep convective clouds the diurnally averaged reduction exceeds 150 W m(-2). The divergence of flux in the cloudy atmosphere can be estimated from the difference in cloud forcing at the surface and tropopause. The CEPEX observations show that the atmospheric cloud forcing is nearly equal and opposite to the surface forcing. Based upon the frequency of convection, the atmospheric forcing approaches 100 W m(-2) when the surface temperature is 303 K. The cloud forcing is closely related to the frequency of convective cloud systems. This relation is used in conjunction with cloud population statistics derived from satellite to calculate the change in surface cloud forcing with sea surface temperature. The net radiative cooling of the surface by clouds increases at a rate of 20 W m(-2)K(-1)during the CEPEX observing period.

Collins, WD, Bucholtz A, Flatau P, Lubin D, Valero FPJ, Weaver CP, Pilewski P.  2000.  Determination of surface heating by convective cloud systems in the central equatorial Pacific from surface and satellite measurements. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres. 105:14807-14821.   10.1029/2000jd900109   AbstractWebsite

The heating of the ocean surface by longwave radiation from convective clouds has been estimated using measurements from the Central Equatorial Pacific Experiment (CEPEX). The ratio of the surface longwave cloud forcing to the cloud radiative forcing on the total atmospheric column is parameterized by the f factor. The f factor is a measure of the partitioning of the cloud radiative effect between the surface and the troposphere. Estimates of the f factor have been obtained by combining simultaneous observations from ship, aircraft, and satellite instruments. The cloud forcing near the ocean surface is determined from radiometers on board the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration P-3 aircraft and the R/V John Vickers. The longwave cloud forcing at the top of the atmosphere has been estimated from data obtained from the Japanese Geostationary Meteorological Satellite GMS 4. A new method for estimating longwave fluxes from satellite narrowband radiances is described. The method is based upon calibrating the satellite radiances against narrowband and broadband infrared measurements from the high-altitude NASA ER-2 aircraft. The average value of f derived from the surface and satellite observations of convective clouds is 0.15 +/- 0.02. The area-mean top-of-atmosphere longwave forcing by convective clouds in the region 10 degrees S-10 degrees N, 160 degrees E-160 degrees W is 40 W/m(2) during CEPEX. Those results indicate that the surface longwave forcing by convective clouds was approximately 5 W/m(2) in the central equatorial Pacific and that this forcing is the smallest radiative component of the surface energy budget.

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Frederick, JE, Lubin D.  1988.  The Budget of Biologically-Active Ultraviolet-Radiation in the Earth-Atmosphere System. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres. 93:3825-3832.   10.1029/JD093iD04p03825   AbstractWebsite

This study applies the concept of a budget to describe the interaction of solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation with the Earth-atmosphere system. The wavelength ranges of interest are the biologically relevant UV-B between 280 and 320 nm and the UV-A from 320 to 400 nm. The Nimbus 7 solar backscattered ultraviolet (SBUV) instrument provides measurements of total column ozone and information concerning cloud cover which, in combination with a simple model of radiation transfer, define the fractions of incident solar irradiance absorbed in the atmosphere, reflected to space, and absorbed at the ground. Results for the month of July quantify the contribution of fractional cloud cover and cloud optical thickness to the radiation budget's three components. Scattering within a thick cloud layer makes the downward radiation field at the cloud base more isotropic than is the case for clear skies. For small solar zenith angles, typical of summer midday conditions, the effective path length of this diffuse irradiance through tropospheric ozone is greater than that under clear-sky conditions. The result is an enhanced absorption of UV-B radiation in the troposphere during cloud-covered conditions. Major changes in global cloud cover or cloud optical thicknesses could alter the ultraviolet radiation received by the biosphere by an amount comparable to that predicted for long-term trends in ozone.

Frederick, JE, Lubin D.  1988.  Possible Long-Term Changes in Biologically-Active Ultraviolet-Radiation Reaching the Ground. Photochemistry and Photobiology. 47:571-578.   10.1111/j.1751-1097.1988.tb08846.x   AbstractWebsite

Three scenarios for long-term changes in atmospheric ozone over the time period 1960 to 2030 lead to different projections for the ultraviolet radiation flux at the earth's surface. Biologically effective fluxes for damage to DNA and generalized damage to plants vary by a factor of 10 or more with latitude and season irrespective of possible changes in ozone. The natural latitudinal gradient in radiation corresponds to spatial changes in biologically effective fluxes which are large compared to temporal changes expected from trends in ozone over the time period analyzed. In an extreme scenario of ozone change, based on an assumed increase in chlorofluorocarbon release rates of 3% per year after 1980, the annually integrated effective flux for damage to DNA increases by 13.5% at latitude 40°N between 1960 and 2030. With chlorofluorocarbon release rates held fixed at their 1980 values, the corresponding radiation increase is only 2.3%. In a scenario where atmospheric chlorine remains fixed at its 1960 value, trends in atmospheric methane and nitrous oxide imply a decrease in biologically effective flux at 40°N of 5.3% between 1960 and 2030.

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Garrity, C, Lubin D, Kern S, Pedersen LT.  2002.  Linescan camera evaluation of SSM/I 85.5 GHz sea ice retrieval. Remote Sensing of Environment. 83:472-487.   10.1016/s0034-4257(02)00063-9   AbstractWebsite

Retrievals of total sea ice concentration from four algorithms using the 85.5 GHz vertically and horizontally polarized channels of the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) over the marginal ice zone in the Barents and Greenland Seas are compared with retrievals of total sea ice concentration from helicopter-borne linescan camera observations made during a cruise of the R/V Polarstern during May-June 1997. The goals are to evaluate (1) SSM/I 85.5 GHz retrievals of total sea ice concentration for climatological purposes, and (2) the ability of 85.5 GHz data to show the sea ice edge through cloud cover, for operational purposes. The SSM/I 85.5 GHz channels offer a spatial resolution of 12.5 km, which is sufficient to resolve ice edge features and small polynyas; however, there is generally more atmospheric contamination of the sea ice signal at 85.5 GHz than at the lower frequencies (19 and 37 GHz) traditionally used for sea ice remote sensing. A self-adjusting algorithm that performs a nonlinear correction for atmospheric moisture, without explicit atmospheric input data, yields the best accuracy over total sea ice concentrations greater than 30%. However, this algorithm can misclassify clouds over open water as sea ice, and is therefore unreliable for locating the sea ice edge. The best algorithm for locating the sea ice edge is found to be the SEA LION algorithm, which explicitly uses meteorological reanalysis data to correct for atmospheric contamination. For total sea ice concentrations in the range 20-70%, empirical 85.5 GHz hybrids of lower-frequency algorithms developed at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center can improve the accuracy of these algorithms. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved.

Garrity, C, Lubin D, Kern S, Pedersen LT.  2003.  Linescan camera evaluation of SSM/I 85.5 GHz sea ice retrieval (vol 83, pg 472, 2002). Remote Sensing of Environment. 84:321-321.   10.1016/s0034-4257(02)00180-3   AbstractWebsite
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Han, W, Stamnes K, Lubin D.  1999.  Remote sensing of surface and cloud properties in the Arctic from AVHRR measurements. Journal of Applied Meteorology. 38:989-1012.   10.1175/1520-0450(1999)038<0989:rsosac>2.0.co;2   AbstractWebsite

Algorithms to retrieve cloud optical depth and effective radius in the Arctic using Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data are developed, using a comprehensive radiative transfer model in which the atmosphere is coupled to the snowpack. For dark surfaces AVHRR channel 1 is used to derive visible cloud optical depth, while for bright surfaces AVHRR channel 2 is used. Independent inference of cloud effective radius from AVHRR channel 3 (3.75 mu m) allows for derivation cloud liquid water path (proportional to the product of optical depth and effective radius). which is a fundamental parameter of the climate system. The algorithms are based on the recognition that the reflection function of clouds at a nonabsorbing wavelength (such as AVHRR channel 1) in the solar spectrum is primarily a function of cloud optical thickness, whereas the reflection function at a liquid water absorbing wavelength (such as AVHRR channel 3) is primarily a function of cloud particle size. For water clouds over highly reflecting surfaces (snow and ice), the reflectance in AVHRR channel 1 is insensitive to cloud optical depth due to the multiple reflections between cloud base and the underlying surface; channel 2 (0.85 mu m) must be used instead for optical depth retrieval. Water clouds over tundra or ocean are more straightforward cases similar to those found at lower latitudes, and in these cases a comprehensive atmospheric radiative transfer model with a Lambertian surface under cloud is used. Thus, for water cloud over tundra and ocean, channel 1 is used for cloud optical depth retrieval. In all cases, channel 3 is used for independent retrieval of cloud droplet effective radius. The thermal component of channel 3 is estimated by making use of channel 4 (11 mu m) and is subtracted from the total channel 3 radiance. Over clear-sky scenes, the bidirectional reflectance properties of snow are calculated directly by the coupled snowpack-atmosphere model. This results in greater overall accuracy in retrieved surface properties as compared with the simplified approach that uses a Lambertian approximation for the surface albedo. To test the physical soundness of the algorithms the authors have applied them to AVHRR data over Barrow, Alaska, from April to August 1992. Downwelling irradiances at the surface calculated using the retrieved cloud optical depth and effective radius are compared with field irradiance measurements, and encouraging agreement is found. The algorithms are also applied to three areas of about 100-km dimension around Barrow, each having a different underlying surface (ocean, tundra, snow).

Holm-Hansen, O, Lubin D.  1994.  Solar ultraviolet radiation: effect on rates of CO2 fixation in marine phytoplankton. Regulation of atmospheric CO2 and O2 by photosynthetic carbon metabolism. ( Tolbert NE, Preiss J, Eds.).:55-74., New York; Oxford: Oxford University Press Abstract
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Holmhansen, O, Helbling EW, Lubin D.  1993.  Ultraviolet-Radiation in Antarctica - Inhibition of Primary Production. Photochemistry and Photobiology. 58:567-570.   10.1111/j.1751-1097.1993.tb04933.x   AbstractWebsite

With the seasonal formation of the ozone hole over Antarctica, there is much concern regarding the effects of increased solar UV-B radiation (280-320 nm) on the marine ecosystem in the Southern Ocean. In situ incubations of natural phytoplankton assemblages in antarctic waters indicate that under normal ozone conditions UV-B radiation is responsible for a loss of approximately 4.9% of primary production in the euphotic zone, whereas UV radiation with wavelengths between 320 and 360 nm causes a loss of approximately 6.2%. When combined with data on the action spectrum for photoinhibition by UV radiation, our data suggest that the enhanced fluence of UV-B radiation under a well-developed ozone hole (1 50 Dobson units) would decrease daily primary productivity by an additional amount of less-than-or-equal-to 53.8%. Calculations that take into consideration the extent and duration of low stratospheric ozone concentrations during September to November indicate that the decrease in total annual primary production in antarctic waters due to enhanced UV-B radiation would be less-than-or-equal-to 0.20%.

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Jayaraman, A, Lubin D, Ramachandran S, Ramanathan V, Woodbridge E, Collins WD, Zalpuri KS.  1998.  Direct observations of aerosol radiative forcing over the tropical Indian Ocean during the January-February 1996 pre-INDOEX cruise. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres. 103:13827-13836.   10.1029/98jd00559   AbstractWebsite

Simultaneous measurements of aerosol optical depth, size distribution, and incoming solar radiation flux were conducted with spectral and broadband radiometers over the coastal Indian region, Arabian Sea, and Indian Ocean in January-February 1996. Columnar aerosol optical depth, delta a, at visible wavelengths was found to be 0.2-0.5 over the Arabian Sea and <0.1 over the equatorial Indian Ocean. Aerosol mass concentration decreased from about 80 mu g/m(3) near the coast to just a few mu g/m(3) over the interior ocean. The sub-micron-size particles showed more than an order of magnitude increase in number concentration near the coast versus the interior ocean. This large gradient in particle concentration was consistent with a corresponding large increase in the Sun-photometer-derived Angstrom exponent, which increased from 0.2 over the Indian Ocean to about 1.4 near the coast. The change in surface-reaching solar flux with delta a was obtained for both the direct and the global solar flux in the visible spectral region. The solar-zenith-angle-normalized global and diffuse fluxes vary almost linearly with normalized delta a. The direct visible (<780 nm) solar flux decreases by about 42 +/- 4 Wm(-2) and the diffuse sky radiation increases by about 30 +/- 3 Wm(-2) with every 0.1 increase in delta a, for solar zenith angles smaller than 60 degrees. For the same extinction optical depth the radiative forcing of the coastal aerosols is larger than the open ocean aerosol forcing by a factor of 2 or larger.

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Kahn, BH, Irion FW, Dang VT, Manning EM, Nasiri SL, Naud CM, Blaisdell JM, Schreier MM, Yue Q, Bowman KW, Fetzer EJ, Hulley GC, Liou KN, Lubin D, Ou SC, Susskind J, Takano Y, Tian B, Worden JR.  2014.  The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder version 6 cloud products. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. 14:399-426.   10.5194/acp-14-399-2014   AbstractWebsite

The version 6 cloud products of the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) instrument suite are described. The cloud top temperature, pressure, and height and effective cloud fraction are now reported at the AIRS field-of-view (FOV) resolution. Significant improvements in cloud height assignment over version 5 are shown with FOV-scale comparisons to cloud vertical structure observed by the CloudSat 94 GHz radar and the Cloud-Aerosol LIdar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP). Cloud thermodynamic phase (ice, liquid, and unknown phase), ice cloud effective diameter (D-e), and ice cloud optical thickness (tau) are derived using an optimal estimation methodology for AIRS FOVs, and global distributions for 2007 are presented. The largest values of tau are found in the storm tracks and near convection in the tropics, while D-e is largest on the equatorial side of the midlatitude storm tracks in both hemispheres, and lowest in tropical thin cirrus and the winter polar atmosphere. Over the Maritime Continent the diurnal variability of tau is significantly larger than for the total cloud fraction, ice cloud frequency, and D-e, and is anchored to the island archipelago morphology. Important differences are described between northern and southern hemispheric midlatitude cyclones using storm center composites. The infrared-based cloud retrievals of AIRS provide unique, decadal-scale and global observations of clouds over portions of the diurnal and annual cycles, and capture variability within the mesoscale and synoptic scales at all latitudes.

Kerr, J, Seckmeyer G, Bais AF, Bernhard G, Blumthaler M, Diaz SB, Krotkov NA, Lubin D, Mckenzie RL, Sabziparvar AA, Verdebout J.  2002.  Surface Ultraviolet Radiation: Past and Future. Scientific assessment of ozone depletion, 2002. Executive summary. ( Organization W, Ed.).:5.1-5.46., [Washington, D.C.]; [Nairobi, Kenya]; [Geneva, Switzerland]; [Brussels, Belgium]: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration : National Aeronautics and Space Administration ; United Nations Environment Programme ; World Meteorological Organization ; European Commission Abstract
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Kirkman, D, Tytler D, O'Meara JM, Burles S, Lubin D, Suzuki N, Carswell RF, Turner MS, Wampler EJ.  2001.  New Hubble Space Telescope spectra of QSO PG 1718+4807: No evidence for strong deuterium absorption. Astrophysical Journal. 559:23-28.   10.1086/322357   AbstractWebsite

The Z(abs) similar to 0.701 absorption system toward QSO PG 1718 + 4807 is the only example of a QSO absorption system which might have a deuterium/hydrogen ratio approximately 10 times the value found toward other QSOs. We have obtained new Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph spectra from the Hubble Space Telescope of the Ly alpha and Lyman limit regions of the system. These spectra give the redshift and velocity dispersion of the neutral hydrogen, which produces most of the observed absorption. The Ly alpha line is too narrow to account for all of the observed absorption. It was previously known that extra absorption is needed on the blue side of the main H I near the expected position of deuterium. We do not find evidence in the current data that the extra absorption is entirely deuterium and find that it is more likely that some of the extra absorption is contaminating H. Until new data can be found that can independently constrain the line parameters of the potential contaminating H, it will not be possible to measure D/H in this system. Some uncertainty persists because we have a low signal-to-noise ratio and the extra absorption-be it deuterium or hydrogen-is heavily blended with the Ly alpha absorption from the main hydrogen absorption.

Kirkman, D, Tytler D, Suzuki N, Melis C, Hollywood S, James K, So G, Lubin D, Jena T, Norman ML, Paschos P.  2005.  The HI opacity of the intergalactic medium at redshifts 1.6 < z < 3.2. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 360:1373-1380.   10.1111/j.1365-2966.2005.09126.x   AbstractWebsite

We use high-quality echelle spectra of 24 quasi-stellar objects to provide a calibrated measurement of the total amount of Ly alpha forest absorption (DA) over the redshift range 2.2 < z < 3.2. Our measurement of DA excludes absorption from metal lines or the Ly alpha lines of Lyman-limit systems and damped Ly alpha systems. We use artificial spectra with realistic flux calibration errors to show that we are able to place continuum levels that are accurate to better than 1 per cent. When we combine our results with our previous results between 1.6 < z < 2.2, we find that the redshift evolution of DA is well described over f1.6 < z < 3.2 as A (1 +z)(gamma), where A = 0.0062 and gamma = 2.75. We detect no significant deviations from a smooth power-law evolution over the redshift range studied. We find less H i absorption than expected at z = 3, implying that the ultraviolet background is similar to 40 per cent higher than expected. Our data appears to be consistent with an H i ionization rate of Gamma similar to 1.4 x 10(-12) s(-1).

Kirkman, D, Tytler D, Burles S, Lubin D, O'Meara JM.  2000.  QSO 0130-4021: A third QSO showing a low deuterium-to-hydrogen abundance ratio. Astrophysical Journal. 529:655-660.   10.1086/308317   AbstractWebsite

We have discovered a third quasar absorption system which is consistent with a low deuterium-to-hydrogen abundance ratio, D/H = 3.4 x 10(-5). The z(abs) similar to 2.8 partial Lyman limit system toward Q0130-4021 provides the strongest evidence to date against large D/H ratios because the H I absorption, which consists of a single high column density component with unsaturated high-order Lyman series lines, is readily modeled-a task which is more complex in other D/H systems. We have obtained 22 hr of spectra from the High-Resolution Echelle Spectrograph on the W. RI. Keek Telescope, which allow a detailed description of the hydrogen. We see excess absorption on the blue wing of the H I Ly alpha line, near the expected position of deuterium. However, we find that deuterium cannot explain all of the excess absorption, and hence there must be contamination by additional absorption, probably H I. This extra H I can account for most or all of the absorption at the D position, and hence D/H = 0 is allowed. We find an upper limit of D/H less than or equal to 6.7 x 10(-5) in this system, consistent with the value of D/H similar or equal to 3.4 x 10(-5) deduced toward QSO 1009 + 2956 and QSO 1937 - 1009 by Buries and Tytler. This absorption system shows only weak metal-line absorption, and we estimate [Si/H] less than or equal to -2.6, indicating that the D/H ratio of the system is likely primordial. All four of the known high-redshift absorption-line systems simple enough to provide useful limits on D are consistent with D/H = 3.4 +/- 0.25 x 10(-5). Conversely, this QSO provides the third case which is inconsistent with much larger values.

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Liu, J, Dedrick J, Russell LM, Senum GI, Uin J, Kuang CG, Springston SR, Leaitch WR, Aiken AC, Lubin D.  2018.  High summertime aerosol organic functional group concentrations from marine and seabird sources at Ross Island, Antarctica, during AWARE. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. 18:8571-8587.   10.5194/acp-18-8571-2018   AbstractWebsite

Observations of the organic components of the natural aerosol are scarce in Antarctica, which limits our understanding of natural aerosols and their connection to seasonal and spatial patterns of cloud albedo in the region. From November 2015 to December 2016, the ARM West Antarctic Radiation Experiment (AWARE) measured submicron aerosol properties near McMurdo Station at the southern tip of Ross Island. Submicron organic mass (OM), particle number, and cloud condensation nuclei concentrations were higher in summer than other seasons. The measurements included a range of compositions and concentrations that likely reflected both local anthropogenic emissions and natural background sources. We isolated the natural organic components by separating a natural factor and a local combustion factor. The natural OM was 150 times higher in summer than in winter. The local anthropogenic emissions were not hygroscopic and had little contribution to the CCN concentrations. Natural sources that included marine sea spray and seabird emissions contributed 56 % OM in summer but only 3 % in winter. The natural OM had high hydroxyl group fraction (55 %), 6 % alkane, and 6 % amine group mass, consistent with marine organic composition. In addition, the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra showed the natural sources of organic aerosol were characterized by amide group absorption, which may be from seabird populations. Carboxylic acid group contributions were high in summer and associated with natural sources, likely forming by secondary reactions.

Lomax, AS, Lubin D, Whritner RH.  1995.  The Potential for Interpreting Total and Multiyear Ice Concentrations in Ssm/I 85.5 Ghz Imagery. Remote Sensing of Environment. 54:13-26.   10.1016/0034-4257(95)00082-c   AbstractWebsite

The 85.5 GHz vertically and horizontally polarized channels of the Special Sensor Microwave Inagers (SSM/1) aboard the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) spacecraft offer the potential to map sea ice with a spatial resolution of 12.5 km, a factor of two improvement over the popular National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Team algorithm, but with the limitation of increased atmospheric influence on the sea ice signal. Application of an algorithm for estimating total ice concentration from 85.5 GHz data, which exploits the large polarization for open water versus the small polarization for most ice types, reveals agreement with the NASA Team algorithm typically within. a standard deviation of +/- 3% for nearly cloud-free winter conditions. The uncertainty increases to a standard deviation of +/- 6% for cloudy winter conditions. In winter, volume scattering from multiyear ice has a noticeable impact on the 85.5 GHz brightness temperatures. By employing a polarization corrected temperature variable previously defined to isolate precipitation in mid-latitude DMSP imagery, it is possible to exploit the large differences in 85.5 GHz emissivity between first year and multiyear ice to interpret an 85.5 GHz image in terms of both total ice and multiyear ice concentration. Preliminary results, for nearly cloud-free winter conditions, reveal agreement between these interpretations and the NASA Team algorithm to within a standard deviation of +/- 6%, with slightly better agreement at Low multiyear ice concentration.

Lubin, D, Vogelmann A, Lehr PJ, Kressin A, Ehramjian J, Ramanathan V.  2000.  Validation of visible/near-IR atmospheric absorption and solar emission spectroscopic models at 1 cm-1 resolution. Journal of Geophysical Research. 105:22445–22454.   10.1029/2000JD900317   Abstract

A Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer, operating at 1 cm-1 resolution between 9000 and 24,669 cm-1 (0.405-1.111 μm) has been used to check the spectral composition of databases that form the basis for most atmospheric absorption parameterizations used in climate models, remote sensing, and other radiative transfer simulations. The spectrometer, operating near sea level under clear skies, obtained relative atmospheric transmission measurements of the direct solar beam by means of a heliostat. The spectroscopic data were compared with a line-by-line radiative transfer model (LBLRTM) calculation of direct solar beam flux, which used a input data a monochromatic model extraterrestrial solar flux spectrum currently in common use. This intercomparison revealed that the extraterrestrial solar flux spectrum contains 266 solar absorption features that do not appear in the data, resulting in an excess of approximately 1.92 W m-2 in the model's solar constant. The intercomparison also revealed 97 absorption features in the data that do not appear in the HITRAN-96 database as used by LBLRTM, resulting in a model underestimate of shortwave absorption of ˜0.23 W m-2 for a solar zenith angle of 42°. These small discrepancies revealed by the intercomparison indicate that current extraterrestrial solar irradiance models and spectroscopic databases used by shortwave atmospheric radiative transfer models are nearly entirely complete for purposes of atmospheric energy budget calculation. Thus clear or cloudy sky `excess absorption' is unlikely to be related to an incomplete identification of atmospheric absorbing gases and their spectroscopic features, at 1 cm-1 resolution, for a clean troposphere of normal composition.

Lubin, D, Chen JP, Pilewskie P, Ramanathan V, Valero FPJ.  1996.  Microphysical examination of excess cloud absorption in the tropical atmosphere. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres. 101:16961-16972.   10.1029/96jd01154   AbstractWebsite

To investigate the excess shortwave absorption by clouds, a numerical cloud generation model has been coupled to a plane-parallel discrete ordinates radiative transfer model. The former was used in a time-dependent fashion to generate a cumulonimbus turret and three types of cirrus anvil (precipitating, extended, detached) representing three stages of cloud evolution outward from the turret. The cloud particle size distributions, as a function of altitude, were used as input to the radiative transfer model using indices of refraction for pure water and pure ice and equivalent sphere Mie theory. The radiative transfer model was used to calculate the ratio of cloud forcing at the surface to cloud forcing at the top of the atmosphere, both for the broadband shortwave and as a function of wavelength. Recent empirical studies have placed this cloud forcing ratio at around 1.5, and our coupled model results approach this value for small solar zenith angles, when the cloud contains large (>100 mu m) ice particles that absorb significantly in the near infrared (primarily the 1.6-mu m window). However, the empirical studies are based on diurnal averages, and our plane-parallel radiative transfer model yields an area and diurnally averaged cloud forcing ratio of only 1.18 for a tropical cumulonimbus and cirrus anvil system, primarily because of the rapid decrease of the ratio with solar zenith angle. The ratio decreases because of the increase in albedo with solar zenith angle, which is a characteristic feature of plane-parallel clouds. Adding dust or aerosol to the cloud layers, to make them absorb at visible wavelengths, makes the instantaneous cloud forcing ratio larger for an overhead Sun but also makes the solar zenith angle dependence in the cloud forcing ratio more pronounced. These two effects cancel, eliminating interstitial aerosol as a possible explanation for the excess cloud absorption in plane-parallel radiative transfer modeling. The strong dependence of the surface/top of the atmosphere cloud forcing ratio on solar zenith angle may be a fundamental defect with the plane-parallel approach to solar radiative transfer in a cloudy atmosphere.