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Liu, J, Dedrick J, Russell LM, Senum GI, Uin J, Kuang CG, Springston SR, Leaitch WR, Aiken AC, Lubin D.  2018.  High summertime aerosol organic functional group concentrations from marine and seabird sources at Ross Island, Antarctica, during AWARE. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. 18:8571-8587.   10.5194/acp-18-8571-2018   AbstractWebsite

Observations of the organic components of the natural aerosol are scarce in Antarctica, which limits our understanding of natural aerosols and their connection to seasonal and spatial patterns of cloud albedo in the region. From November 2015 to December 2016, the ARM West Antarctic Radiation Experiment (AWARE) measured submicron aerosol properties near McMurdo Station at the southern tip of Ross Island. Submicron organic mass (OM), particle number, and cloud condensation nuclei concentrations were higher in summer than other seasons. The measurements included a range of compositions and concentrations that likely reflected both local anthropogenic emissions and natural background sources. We isolated the natural organic components by separating a natural factor and a local combustion factor. The natural OM was 150 times higher in summer than in winter. The local anthropogenic emissions were not hygroscopic and had little contribution to the CCN concentrations. Natural sources that included marine sea spray and seabird emissions contributed 56 % OM in summer but only 3 % in winter. The natural OM had high hydroxyl group fraction (55 %), 6 % alkane, and 6 % amine group mass, consistent with marine organic composition. In addition, the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra showed the natural sources of organic aerosol were characterized by amide group absorption, which may be from seabird populations. Carboxylic acid group contributions were high in summer and associated with natural sources, likely forming by secondary reactions.

Lubin, D, Mitchell BG, Frederick JE, Alberts AD, Booth CR, Lucas T, Neuschuler D.  1992.  A Contribution toward Understanding the Biospherical Significance of Antarctic Ozone Depletion. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres. 97:7817-7828.   10.1029/91JD01400   AbstractWebsite

Measurements of biologically active UV radiation made by the National Science Foundation (NSF) scanning spectroradiometer (UV-monitor) at Palmer Station. Antarctica, during the Austral springs of 1988, 1989, and 1990 are presented and compared. Column ozone abundance above Palmer Station is computed from these measurements using a multiple wavelength algorithm. Two contrasting action spectra (biological weighting functions) are used to estimate the biologically relevant (dose from the spectral measurements: a standard weighting function for damage to DNA, and a new action spectrum representing the potential for photosynthesis inhibition in Antarctic phytoplankton. The former weights only UV-B wavelengths (280-320 nm) and gives the most weight to wavelengths shorter than 300 nm, while the latter includes large contributions out to 355 nm. The latter is the result of recent Antarctic field work and is relevant in that phytoplankton constitute the base of the Antarctic food web. The modest ozone hole of 1988, in which the ozone abundance above Palmer Station never fell below 200 Dobson units (DU), brought about summerlike doses of DNA-effective UV radiation 2 months early, but UV doses which could inhibit photosynthesis in phytoplankton did not exceed a clear-sky "maximum normal" dose for that time of year. The severe ozone holes of 1989 and 1990, in which the ozone abundance regularly fell below 200 DU, brought about increases in UV surface irradiance weighted by either action spectrum. Ozone abundances and dose-weighted irradiances provided by the NSF UV-monitor are used to derive the radiation amplification factors (RAFs) for both DNA-effective irradiance and phytoplankton-effective irradiance. The RAF for DNA-effective irradiance is nonlinear in ozone abundance and is in excess of the popular "two for one" rule, while the RAF for phytoplankton-effective irradiance approximately follows a "one for one" rule.