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Scott, RC, Lubin D.  2016.  Unique manifestations of mixed-phase cloud microphysics over Ross Island and the Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica. Geophysical Research Letters. 43:2936-2945.   10.1002/2015gl067246   AbstractWebsite

Spaceborne radar and lidar observations from the CloudSat and CALIPSO satellites are used to compare seasonal variations in the microphysical and radiative properties of clouds over Ross Island, Antarctica, with two contrasting Arctic atmospheric observatories located in Barrow, Alaska, and Summit, Greenland. At Ross Island, downstream from recurrent intrusions of marine air over the West Antarctic Ice Sheet and eastern Ross Ice Shelf, clouds exhibit a tendency toward the greatest geometrical thickness and coldest temperatures in summer, the largest average ice water content, IWC, at low altitude during summer and autumn, the most abundant IWC at cold mixed-phase temperatures (-40 degrees C

Lubin, D, Arrigo KR, van Dijken GL.  2004.  Increased exposure of Southern Ocean phytoplankton to ultraviolet radiation. Geophysical Research Letters. 31   10.1029/2004gl019633   AbstractWebsite

Satellite remote sensing of both surface solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and chlorophyll over two decades shows that biologically significant ultraviolet radiation increases began to occur over the Southern Ocean three years before the ozone "hole'' was discovered. Beginning in October 1983, the most frequent occurrences of enhanced UVR over phytoplankton-rich waters occurred in the Weddell Sea and Indian Ocean sectors of the Southern Ocean, impacting 60% of the surface biomass by the late 1990s. These results suggest two reasons why more serious impacts to the base of the marine food web may not have been detected by field experiments: ( 1) the onset of UVR increases several years before dedicated field work began may have impacted the most sensitive organisms long before such damage could be detected, and ( 2) most biological field work has so far not taken place in Antarctic waters most extensively subjected to enhanced UVR.

Lubin, D, Lynch S, Clarke R, Morrow E, Hart S.  2003.  Increasing reflectivity of the Antarctic ocean-atmosphere system: Analysis of Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) and passive microwave data for 1979-1994. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres. 108   10.1029/2002jd002702   AbstractWebsite

Measurements of Lambert equivalent reflectance at 380 nm from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument have shown increases in reflectivity between 1979 and 1994 over much of the Southern Ocean, encompassing 280degrees in longitude. These trends represent a possible change in the state of the Antarctic ocean-atmosphere system related to recent climate warming. To determine if these reflectivity trends are due to changes in cloud cover or sea ice, or both, the TOMS data were collocated with a contemporaneous passive microwave satellite data set from the scanning multichannel microwave radiometer and the Special Sensor Microwave Imager. The passive microwave data sets specify total sea ice concentration, retrieved by a uniform method for all years using the NASA Team algorithm. To first order the locations of TOMS reflectivity increases coincide with regions where sea ice concentration has increased over the past 2 decades, signifying that the TOMS trends are the result of trends in underlying sea ice and not cloud cover. However, when the TOMS reflectivity measurements are sorted into fixed sea ice concentration bins of 0.1 width, the TOMS data also show increasing reflectivity trends in regions where sea ice extent has been decreasing (Amundsen and Bellingshausen Seas and the Western Antarctic Peninsula). Over open water, TOMS reflectivity trends are less convincing and may be artifacts related to uncertainties in passive microwave sea ice identification. These results suggest that a significant component of the Southern Ocean TOMS reflectivity trends may be a gradual increase in the albedo of the underlying sea ice. This could be caused by a gradual lengthening of the sea ice season, with a concomitant increase in the persistence of dry snow on the sea ice cover.

Lubin, D, Ricchiazzi P, Payton A, Gautier C.  2002.  Significance of multidimensional radiative transfer effects measured in surface fluxes at an Antarctic coastline. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres. 107   10.1029/2001jd002030   AbstractWebsite

[1] At a coastal high-latitude site, multiple reflection of photons between the high albedo surface and an overlying cloud can enhance the downwelling shortwave flux out over the adjacent open water to a distance of several kilometers. This coastal albedo effect has been predicted by theoretical radiative transfer studies and has also been measured under ideal conditions. In this study, three multispectral solar ultraviolet radiometers were deployed in the vicinity of Palmer Station, Antarctica (64degrees 46'S, 64degrees 04'W) to determine the prevalence of the coastal albedo effect under the region's natural variability in cloud cover. One radiometer was deployed near the base of a glacier, and the other two radiometers were deployed on Janus Island and Outcast Island, islets similar to2.8 km (1.5 nautical miles) and 5.6 km (3 nautical miles) distant from Palmer Station, respectively. The radiometers were operated simultaneously for 16 days during late December 1999 and January 2000. Under all cloudy sky conditions sampled by this experiment the coastal albedo effect is seen in the data 60% of the time, in the form of a decreasing gradient in surface flux from Palmer Station through Janus and Outcast Islands. During the other 40% of the cloudy sky measurements, local cloud inhomogeneity obscured the coastal albedo effect. The effect is more apparent under overcast layers that appear spatially uniform and occurs 86% of the time under the low overcast decks sampled. The presence of stratus fractus of bad weather, under higher overcast layers, obscures the coastal albedo effect such that it occurs only 43% of the time. A wavelength dependence is noted in the data under optically thin cloud cover: the ratio of a flux measured at an islet to that measured at the station increases with wavelength. This wavelength dependence can be explained by plane-parallel radiative transfer theory.