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Tytler, D, O'Meara JM, Suzuki N, Lubin D.  2000.  Review of big bang nucleosynthesis and primordial abundances. Physica Scripta. T85:12-31.   10.1238/Physica.Topical.085a00012   AbstractWebsite

Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) is the synthesis of the light nuclei, Deuterium (D or H-2), He-3, He-4 and Li-7 during the first few minutes of the universe. This review concentrates on recent improvements in the measurement of the primordial (after BBN, and prior to modification) abundances of these nuclei. We mention improvement in the standard theory, and the non-standard extensions which are limited by the data. We have achieved an order of magnitude improvement in the precision of the measurement of primordial D/H, using the HIRES spectrograph on the W M. Keck telescope to measure D in gas with very nearly primordial abundances towards quasars. From 1994 - 1996, it appeared that there could be a factor of ten range in primordial D/H, but today four examples of low D are secure. High D/H should be much easier to detect, and since there are no convincing examples, it must be extremely rare or non-existent. All data are consistent with a single low value for D/H, and the examples which an consistent with high D/H are readily interpreted as H contamination near the position of D. The new D/H measurements give the most accurate value for the baryon to photon ratio II, and hence the cosmological baryon density. A similar density is required to explain the amount of Ly alpha absorption from neutral Hydrogen in the intergalactic medium (IGM) at redshift z similar or equal to 3, and to explain the fraction of baryons in local clusters of galaxies. The D/H measurements lead to predictions for the abundances of the other light nuclei, which generally agree with measurements. The remaining differences with some measurements can be explained by a combination of measurement and analysis errors or changes in the abundances after BBN. The measurements do not require physics beyond the standard BBN model. instead, the agreement between the abundances is used to limit the non-standard physics. New measurements are giving improved understanding of the difficulties in estimating the abundances of all the light nuclei, but unfortunately in most cases we are not yet seeing much improvement in the accuracy of the primordial abundances. Since we are now interested in the highest accuracy and reliability for all nuclei, the few objects with the most extensive observations give by far the most convincing results. Earlier measurements of He-4 may have obtained too low a value because the He emission line strengths were reduced by undetected stellar absorption lines. The systematic errors associated with the He-4 abundance have frequently been underestimated in the past, and this problem persists. When two groups use the same data and different ways to estimate the electron density and He-4 abundance, the results differ by more than the quoted systematic errors. While the methods used by Izotov and Thuan [1] seem to be an advance on those used before, the other method is reasonable, and hence the systematic error should encompass the range in results. The abundance of Li-7 is measured to high accuracy, but we do not know how much was produced prior to the formation of the stars, and how much was destroyed (depleted) in the stars. Li-6 helps limit the amount of depletion of Li-7, but by an uncertain amount since it too has been depleted. BBN is successful because it uses known physics and measured cross-sections for the nuclear reactions. It gives accurate predictions for the abundances of five light nuclei as a function of the one free parameter eta. The other initial conditions seem natural: the universe began homogeneous and hotter than T > 10(11) K (30 Mev). The predicted abundances agree with most observations, and the required eta is consistent with other, less accurate, measurements of the baryon density. Abundance measurements of the baryon density, from the CMB, clusters of galaxies and the Ly alpha forest, will give II. Although the accuracy might not exceed that obtained from D/H, this is an important advance because BBN then gives abundance predictions with no adjustable parameters. New measurement in the coming years will give improved accuracy. Measurement of D/H in many more quasar spectra would improve the accuracy of D/H by a factor of a few, to a few percent, but even with improved methods of selecting the target quasars, this would need much more time on the largest telescopes. More reliable He-4 abundances might be obtained from spectra which have higher spectral and spatial resolution, to help correct for stellar absorption, higher signal to noise to show weaker emission lines, and more galaxies with low metal abundances, to minimize the extrapolation to primordial abundances. Measurements of Li-6, Be and Boron in the same stars and observations of a variety of stars should give improved models for the depletion of Li-7 in halo stars, and hence tighter constraints on the primordial abundance. However, in general, it is hard to think of any new methods which could give any primordial abundances with an order of magnitude higher accuracy than those used today. This is a major unexploited opportunity because it means that we can not yet test BBN to the accuracy of the predictions.

Tytler, D, O'Meara JM, Suzuki N, Lubin D.  2000.  Deuterium and the baryonic density of the universe. Physics Reports-Review Section of Physics Letters. 333:409-432.   10.1016/s0370-1573(00)00032-6   AbstractWebsite

Big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) is the creation of the light nuclei, deuterium, He-3, He-4 and Li-7 during the first few minutes of the universe. Here we discuss recent measurements of the D to H abundance ratio, D/H, in our galaxy and towards quasars. We have achieved an order of magnitude improvement in the precision of the measurement of primordial D/H, using the HIRES spectrograph on the W. M. Keck telescope to measure D in gas with very nearly primordial abundances towards quasars. From 1994 to 1996, it appeared that there could be a factor of 10 range in primordial D/H, but today four examples of low D are secure. High D/H should be much easier to detect, and since there are no convincing examples, it must be extremely rare or non-existent. All data are consistent with a single low value for D/H, and the examples which are consistent with high D/H are readily interpreted as H contamination near the position of D. The new D/H measurements give the most accurate value for the baryon-to-photon ratio, eta, and hence the cosmological baryon density. A similar density is required to explain the amount of Ly alpha absorption from neutral hydrogen in the intergalactic medium (IGM) at redshift z similar or equal to 3, and to explain the fraction of baryons in local clusters of galaxies. The D/H measurements lead to predictions for the abundances of the other light nuclei, which generally agree with measurements. The remaining differences with some measurements can be explained by a combination of measurement and analysis errors or changes in the abundances after BBN. The measurements do not require physics beyond the standard BBN model. Instead, the agreement between the abundances is used to limit the non-standard physics. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

Tytler, D, O'Meara JM, Suzuki N, Kirkman D, Lubin D, Orin A.  2004.  The Kast ground-based ultraviolet spectral survey of 79 quasi-stellar objects at redshift 2 for Ly alpha forest and metal absorption. Astronomical Journal. 128:1058-1077.   10.1086/423293   AbstractWebsite

We present spectra of 79 bright QSOs obtained with the Kast spectrograph on the 3 m Shane Telescope at Lick Observatory. The QSOs have emission redshifts 1.89 - 2.45, and most are near the mean value of z(em) = 2.17. Two of them, one a new discovery, are broad absorption line QSOs. The spectra have similar to250 km s(-1) resolution, and they cover 3175 - 5880 Angstrom with signal-to-noise ratios of 6 - 20 per 1.13 Angstrom pixel in the Lyalpha forest between Lyalpha and Lybeta. We show the continuum levels that we used in a previous paper to make a calibrated measurement of the amount of absorption in the Lyalpha forest at z = 1.9. We measure redshifts for 140 absorption-line systems, and we list the metal ions that we see in each system. We identify 526 emission lines and list their observed wavelengths, which we use to obtain new emission redshifts. We find that three emission lines, or line blends, in the forest have mean rest wavelengths of 1070.95 +/- 1.00, 1123.13 +/- 0.51, and 1175.88 +/- 0.30 Angstrom.

Tytler, D, O'Meara JM, Suzuki N, Lubin D, Burles S, Kirkman D.  2000.  Measurements of the primordial D/H abundance towards quasars. Light Elements and Their Evolution. ( DaSilva L, Spite M, DeMedeiros JR, Eds.).:125-134., San Francisco: Astronomical Soc Pacific Abstract

Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) is the synthesis of the light nuclei, Deuterium (D or H-2), He-3, He-4 and Li-7 during the first few minutes of the universe. In this review we concentrate on recent data which give the primordial deuterium (D) abundance. We have measured the primordial D/H in gas with very nearly primordial abundances. We use the Lyman series absorption lines seen in the spectra of quasars. We have measured D/H towards three QSOs, while a fourth gives a consistent upper limit. All QSO spectra are consistent with a single value for D/H: 3.325(-0.25)(+0.22) x 10(-5). From about 1994-1996, there was much discussion of the possibility that some QSOs show much higher D/H, but the best such example was shown to be contaminated by H, and no other no convincing examples have been found. Since high D/H should be much easier to detect, and hence it must be extremely rare or non-existent. The new D/H measurements give the most accurate value for the baryon to photon ratio, eta, and hence the cosmological baryon density: Omega(b) = 0.0190 +/- 0.0009 (1sigma) A similar density is required to explain the amount of Lyalpha absorption from neutral Hydrogen in the intergalactic medium (IGM) at redshift z similar or equal to 3, and to explain the fraction of baryons in local clusters of galaxies. The D/H measurements lead to predictions for the abundances of the other light nuclei, which generally agree with measurements. The remaining differences with some measurements can be explained by a combination of measurement and analysis errors or changes in the abundances after BBN. The measurements do not require physics beyond the standard BBN model. Instead, the agreement between the abundances is used to limit the non-standard physics.

Tytler, D, O'Meara JM, Suzuki N, Lubin D.  2000.  Big bang nucleosynthesis. Nuclear Physics B-Proceedings Supplements. 87:464-473.   10.1016/s0920-5632(00)00721-0   AbstractWebsite

Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) is the synthesis of the light nuclei, Deuterium (D or H-2), He-3, He-4 and Li-7 during the first few minutes of the universe. This review concentrates on recent improvements in the measurement of the primordial (after BBN, and prior to modification) abundances of these nuclei.