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Liu, J, Dedrick J, Russell LM, Senum GI, Uin J, Kuang CG, Springston SR, Leaitch WR, Aiken AC, Lubin D.  2018.  High summertime aerosol organic functional group concentrations from marine and seabird sources at Ross Island, Antarctica, during AWARE. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. 18:8571-8587.   10.5194/acp-18-8571-2018   AbstractWebsite

Observations of the organic components of the natural aerosol are scarce in Antarctica, which limits our understanding of natural aerosols and their connection to seasonal and spatial patterns of cloud albedo in the region. From November 2015 to December 2016, the ARM West Antarctic Radiation Experiment (AWARE) measured submicron aerosol properties near McMurdo Station at the southern tip of Ross Island. Submicron organic mass (OM), particle number, and cloud condensation nuclei concentrations were higher in summer than other seasons. The measurements included a range of compositions and concentrations that likely reflected both local anthropogenic emissions and natural background sources. We isolated the natural organic components by separating a natural factor and a local combustion factor. The natural OM was 150 times higher in summer than in winter. The local anthropogenic emissions were not hygroscopic and had little contribution to the CCN concentrations. Natural sources that included marine sea spray and seabird emissions contributed 56 % OM in summer but only 3 % in winter. The natural OM had high hydroxyl group fraction (55 %), 6 % alkane, and 6 % amine group mass, consistent with marine organic composition. In addition, the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra showed the natural sources of organic aerosol were characterized by amide group absorption, which may be from seabird populations. Carboxylic acid group contributions were high in summer and associated with natural sources, likely forming by secondary reactions.

Lomax, AS, Lubin D, Whritner RH.  1995.  The Potential for Interpreting Total and Multiyear Ice Concentrations in Ssm/I 85.5 Ghz Imagery. Remote Sensing of Environment. 54:13-26.   10.1016/0034-4257(95)00082-c   AbstractWebsite

The 85.5 GHz vertically and horizontally polarized channels of the Special Sensor Microwave Inagers (SSM/1) aboard the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) spacecraft offer the potential to map sea ice with a spatial resolution of 12.5 km, a factor of two improvement over the popular National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Team algorithm, but with the limitation of increased atmospheric influence on the sea ice signal. Application of an algorithm for estimating total ice concentration from 85.5 GHz data, which exploits the large polarization for open water versus the small polarization for most ice types, reveals agreement with the NASA Team algorithm typically within. a standard deviation of +/- 3% for nearly cloud-free winter conditions. The uncertainty increases to a standard deviation of +/- 6% for cloudy winter conditions. In winter, volume scattering from multiyear ice has a noticeable impact on the 85.5 GHz brightness temperatures. By employing a polarization corrected temperature variable previously defined to isolate precipitation in mid-latitude DMSP imagery, it is possible to exploit the large differences in 85.5 GHz emissivity between first year and multiyear ice to interpret an 85.5 GHz image in terms of both total ice and multiyear ice concentration. Preliminary results, for nearly cloud-free winter conditions, reveal agreement between these interpretations and the NASA Team algorithm to within a standard deviation of +/- 6%, with slightly better agreement at Low multiyear ice concentration.

Lubin, D, Ricchiazzi P, Payton A, Gautier C.  2002.  Significance of multidimensional radiative transfer effects measured in surface fluxes at an Antarctic coastline. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres. 107   10.1029/2001jd002030   AbstractWebsite

[1] At a coastal high-latitude site, multiple reflection of photons between the high albedo surface and an overlying cloud can enhance the downwelling shortwave flux out over the adjacent open water to a distance of several kilometers. This coastal albedo effect has been predicted by theoretical radiative transfer studies and has also been measured under ideal conditions. In this study, three multispectral solar ultraviolet radiometers were deployed in the vicinity of Palmer Station, Antarctica (64degrees 46'S, 64degrees 04'W) to determine the prevalence of the coastal albedo effect under the region's natural variability in cloud cover. One radiometer was deployed near the base of a glacier, and the other two radiometers were deployed on Janus Island and Outcast Island, islets similar to2.8 km (1.5 nautical miles) and 5.6 km (3 nautical miles) distant from Palmer Station, respectively. The radiometers were operated simultaneously for 16 days during late December 1999 and January 2000. Under all cloudy sky conditions sampled by this experiment the coastal albedo effect is seen in the data 60% of the time, in the form of a decreasing gradient in surface flux from Palmer Station through Janus and Outcast Islands. During the other 40% of the cloudy sky measurements, local cloud inhomogeneity obscured the coastal albedo effect. The effect is more apparent under overcast layers that appear spatially uniform and occurs 86% of the time under the low overcast decks sampled. The presence of stratus fractus of bad weather, under higher overcast layers, obscures the coastal albedo effect such that it occurs only 43% of the time. A wavelength dependence is noted in the data under optically thin cloud cover: the ratio of a flux measured at an islet to that measured at the station increases with wavelength. This wavelength dependence can be explained by plane-parallel radiative transfer theory.

Lubin, D, Ricchiazzi P, Gautier C, Whritner R.  1994.  A method for mapping Antarctic surface ultraviolet radiation using multispectral satellite imagery. Antarctic Research Series. 62:53-81.   10.1029/AR062p0053   Abstract

Satellite-tracking facilities recently deployed at U.S. Antarctic research stations provide an extensive data set for studying the atmospheric radiation budget. Images from the advanced very high resolution radiometers (AVHRR) aboard the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration polar orbiters can be used in conjunction with data from the Nimbus 7 total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) to construct maps of biologically active ultraviolet irradiance at the Antarctic Earth surface. We have developed a method to perform this mapping which involves refinements to the satellite data as well as detailed radiative transfer theory. We recalibrate the AVHRR data to account for sensor deterioration in orbit, and we remove bidirectional reflectance effects where possible. A surface albedo map can be constructed for the region and time period of interest by compositing as many cloud-free AVHRR images as are available. The optical depth of clouds over the open ocean can be estimated from AVHRR visible channel imagery by direct application of a delta-Eddington radiative transfer model. Over snow and ice, radiative transfer limitations require the use of an empirical parameterization for cloud optical depth as a function of the brightness temperature difference between AVHRR thermal channels 3 and 4. This parameterization is derived for cloud fields over the ocean and applied to nearby cloud fields over snow and ice. Once each pixel in a satellite image has an associated estimate of total ozone, cloud optical depth, and surface albedo, a delta-Eddington radiative transfer model is used to calculate the surface irradiance at any ultraviolet, visible, or near-infrared wavelength. Estimates of cloud optical depth and surface irradiance can be validated by ground-based radiometers, including the NSF UV monitor.

Lubin, D, Jensen EH, Gies HP.  1998.  Global surface ultraviolet radiation climatology from TOMS and ERBE data. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres. 103:26061-26091.   10.1029/98jd02308   AbstractWebsite

A global climatology of biologically active solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) at the Earth's surface is derived using NASA total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) measurements of column ozone abundance and NASA Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) measurements of solar reflectance from the Earth-atmosphere system. These two sources of satellite data are used as input to a delta-Eddington radiative transfer model to estimate climatological cloud opacity and thereby demonstrate how surface UVR varies with geography and season. The surface UVR fluxes are spectrally resolved to enable weighted integration with any biological action spectrum. Solar elevation is shown to be more important than total column ozone abundance in governing the variability of surface UVR over large geographic areas, although some regions with pronounced local minima in ozone (30 Dobson units or more) will cause noticeable enhancements of integrated UV-B (280-315 nm) flux relative to UV-A (315-400 nm). The greatest variability in surface UVR within a given climate zone is induced by cloud cover. During summer, regions that show lower surface UVR fluxes relative to their surrounding regions include the eastern United States (versus the western United States), India, China (in the vicinity of the Yangtze River), and Japan (relative to the surrounding oceans). Cloud cover over tropical rainforest areas reduces the surface UVR flux relative to ocean areas at the same latitudes. The UVR cloud transmission derived from the TOMS and ERBE data correlates with an independent climatology of global cloud coverage. The UVR mapping method, based on the TOMS and ERBE data, allows a direct investigation of diurnal variability and a rigorous calculation of the biologically relevant integrated daily dose of UVR. However, it is shown that a UVR mapping method based on TOMS data alone, which is limited to only local noon satellite measurements, can make defensible estimates of the integrated daily UVR dose and the instantaneous local noon UVR surface flux.

Lubin, D, Frederick JE, Krueger AJ.  1989.  The Ultraviolet-Radiation Environment of Antarctica - Mcmurdo Station During September-October 1987. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres. 94:8491-8496.   10.1029/JD094iD06p08491   AbstractWebsite

The large depletions in column ozone observed over Antarctica during spring imply enhanced levels of solar ultraviolet radiation at the Earth's surface. Daily data from the Nimbus 7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer were combined with a model of atmospheric radiative transfer to compute the time evolution of ultraviolet irradiance, at wavelengths from 290 to 350 nm, incident on McMurdo Station during September-October 1987. Large changes in column ozone occur as the polar vortex moves over the site. This is accompanied by correspondingly large variations in ultraviolet radiation at the Earth's surface. At a wavelength near 305 nm, the irradiance in early October exceeds values appropriate to an unperturbed ozone layer by a factor of 5–6. As December 21 approaches, the noontime ultraviolet irradiance increases, irrespective of changes in ozone. Any lengthening of the period of ozone depletion toward summer solstice will have a substantial impact on the ultraviolet irradiance received by the Antarctic surface.

Lubin, D, Wittenmyer RA, Bromwich DH, Marshall GJ.  2008.  Antarctic Peninsula mesoscale cyclone variability and climatic impacts influenced by the SAM. Geophysical Research Letters. 35   10.1029/2007gl032170   AbstractWebsite

The frequency of mesoscale cyclones in the Western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) region during 1991-94 is correlated with the Southern Hemisphere Annular Mode (SAM) index, most strongly during winter and spring. Also, during periods of positive SAM index polarity there is a shift in the storm tracks to favor more east-bound trajectories, consistent with strengthening of circumpolar westerlies. The presence of mesoscale cyclones is associated with positive near-surface-air temperature anomalies in the WAP region year-round, largest during winter.

Lubin, D, Ayres G, Hart S.  2009.  REMOTE SENSING OF POLAR REGIONS Lessons and Resources for the International Polar Year. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society. 90:825-+.   10.1175/2008bams2596.1   AbstractWebsite

Polar researchers have historically been innovative and adaptive users of satellite remote sensing data, and their experiences can suggest ways to enhance the use of remote sensing throughout the climate sciences. We performed a semistructured survey of the polar research community on the use of remote sensing at the beginning of the NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) era. For the most part, remote sensing plays a supporting but critical role in the research as described by the respondents. Data acquisition and analysis is mostly at the home institution, with field telemetry appearing in a small minority of responses. Most polar researchers have not had formal training in remote sensing, but they have adapted and trained themselves very thoroughly. Although a significant number of polar researchers are content with visual inspection of satellite images, a roughly equal number develop their own algorithms for derivation of geophysical products, and more have become adept at using high-level graphical programming languages to work with data. Given the self-sufficiency in remote sensing training that characterizes polar researchers, nontraditional satellite data users (e.g., life scientists) tend to view the "learning curve" as steep, as compared with physical scientists. Although up to a third of respondents report no significant obstacles in accessing satellite data, obstacles such as a) difficulty locating data centers for their needs, b) the cost of acquiring data, and c) insider or restricted access to data were each reported by about one-quarter of the respondents. The major ongoing challenges with remote sensing in polar research can be met with aspects of modern cyberinfrastructure involving data interoperability.

Lubin, D, Satheesh SK, McFarquar G, Heymsfield AJ.  2002.  Longwave radiative forcing of Indian Ocean tropospheric aerosol. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres. 107   10.1029/2001jd001183   AbstractWebsite

A spectrally resolved discrete-ordinates radiative transfer model is used to calculate the change in downwelling surface and top-of-the-atmosphere (TOA) outgoing longwave (3.9-500 mum) radiative fluxes induced by tropospheric aerosols of the type observed over the Indian Ocean during the Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX). Both external and internal aerosol mixtures were considered. Throughout the longwave, the aerosol volume extinction depends more strongly on relative humidity than in most of the shortwave (0.28-3.9 mum), implying that particle growth factors and realistic relative humidity profiles must be taken into account when modeling the longwave radiative effects of aerosols. A typical boundary layer aerosol loading, with a 500-nm optical depth of 0.3, will increase the downwelling longwave flux at the surface by 7.7 W m(-2) over the clean air case while decreasing the outgoing longwave radiation by 1.3 W m(-2). A more vertically extended aerosol loading, exhibiting a high opacity plume between 2 and 3 km above the surface and having a typical 500-nm optical depth of 0.7, will increase the downwelling longwave flux at the surface by 11.2 W m(-2) over the clean air case while decreasing the outgoing longwave radiation by 2.7 W m(-2). For a vertically extended aerosol profile, approximately 30% of the TOA radiative forcing comes from sea salt and approximately 60% of the forcing comes from the combination of sea salt and dust. The remaining forcing is from anthropogenic constituents. These results are for the external mixture. For an internal mixture, TOA longwave forcings can be up to a factor of two larger. Therefore, to complete our understanding of this region's longwave aerosol radiative properties, more detailed information is needed about aerosol mixing states. These longwave radiative effects partially offset the large shortwave aerosol radiative forcing and should be included in regional and global climate modeling simulations.

Lubin, D, Melis C, Tytler D.  2018.  Ultraviolet flux decrease under a grand minimum from IUE short-wavelength observation of solar analogs. Astrophysical Journal Letters. 852   10.3847/2041-8213/aaa124   AbstractWebsite

We have identified a sample of 33 Sun-like stars observed by the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) with the short-wavelength spectrographs that have ground-based detections of chromospheric Ca II H+K activity. Our objective is to determine if these observations can provide an estimate of the decrease in ultraviolet (UV) surface flux associated with a transition from a normal stellar cycle to a grand-minimum state. The activity detections, corrected to solar metallicity, span the range -5.16 < log R'(HK) < -4.26, and eight stars have log R'(HK) < -5.00. The IUE-observed flux spectra are integrated over the wavelength range 1250-1910 A, transformed to surface fluxes, and then normalized to solar B - V. These normalized surface fluxes show a strong linear relationship with activity R'(HK) (R-2 = 0.857 after three outliers are omitted). From this linear regression we estimate a range in UV flux of 9.3% over solar cycle 22 and a reduction of 6.9% below solar cycle minimum under a grand minimum. The 95% confidence interval in this grand-minimum estimate is 5.5%-8.4%. An alternative estimate is provided by the IUE observations of tau Cet (HD 10700), a star having strong evidence of being in a grand-minimum state, and this star's normalized surface flux is 23.0 +/- 5.7% lower than solar cycle minimum.

Lubin, D, Morrow E.  1998.  Evaluation of an AVHRR cloud detection and classification method over the Central Arctic Ocean. Journal of Applied Meteorology. 37:166-183.   10.1175/1520-0450(1998)037<0166:eoaacd>;2   AbstractWebsite

A cloud classification method that uses both multispectral and textural features with a maximum likelihood discriminator is applied to full-resolution AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) data from 100 NOAA polar-orbiter overpasses tracked from an icebreaker during the 1994 Arctic Ocean Section. The cloud classification method is applied to the 32 x 32 pixel cell centered about the ship's position during each overpass. These overpasses have matching surface weather observations in the form of all-sky photographs or, during a period of heavy weather, an objective record that the sky was overcast with low water clouds. The cloud classifications from the maximum likelihood method are compared with the surface weather observations to determine if the automated satellite cloud classifier actually produces realistic descriptions of the scene. These comparisons are favorable in most cases, with the exception of a frequent error in which the classifier confuses Ci/Cc/Ac with extensive low water clouds over sea ice. This overall evaluation does not change appreciably if global area coverage resolution is used instead of full resolution or if the authors attempt to recalibrate the data to the NOAA-7 data for which the algorithm was originally developed. The authors find that the Ci/Cc/Ac cloud error can usually be avoided by 1) modifying the textural feature values for some cloud-over-ice categories and 2) applying a threshold value of 30% to the AVHRR channel 2 albedo averaged over the cell (and normalized by the cosine of the solar zenith angle). For a cell that the classifier identifies as containing Ci/Cc/Ac over sea ice, a cell-average channel 2 albedo greater than 30% usually indicates that the cell instead contains extensive low water clouds. When compared to the surface weather observations, the skill score of the satellite cloud classifier thus modified is 81%, which is very close to that claimed by its original author, This study suggests that satellite cloud detection and classification schemes based on both spectral signatures and texture recognition may indeed yield realistic results.

Lubin, D, Garrity C, Ramseier RO, Whritner RH.  1997.  Total sea ice concentration retrieval from the SSM/I 85.5 GHz channels during the Arctic summer. Remote Sensing of Environment. 62:63-76.   10.1016/s0034-4257(97)00081-3   AbstractWebsite

During the 1994 Arctic Ocean Section, a joint voyage across the Arctic Ocean, by the U.S. Coast Guard Cutter Polar Sea and the Canadian Coast Guard Ship Louis S. St.-Laurent, telemetry from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) polar orbiters was tracked by a shipboard antenna. Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) data was used to generate maps of total sea. ice concentration, using the NASA Team algorithm with the 19 GHz and 37 GHz channels, and using a polarization-based algorithm with the 85.5 GHz channels. When compared with shipboard ice observations, the total sea ice concentration estimated from the 85.5 GHz algorithm are at least as accurate as those from the algorithm that uses only the lower SSM/I frequencies, despite the potential for greater difficulty in dealing with cloud liquid water contamination in the 85.5 GHz signal during the Arctic summer. Near the edge of the ice pack, the 85.5 GHz algorithm often provided more accurate estimates of total ice concentration when compared with surface observations, most likely because of the finer grid spacing at 85.5 GHz (12.5 km vs. 25 km for 37 GHz). However, when using the 85.5 GHz algorithm over regions of lower ice concentration, the reference polarizations in a given image must be chosen with care because over lower sea ice concentration the polarization-based algorithm is more sensitive to cloud opacity and can easily and substantially underestimate the ice concentration. The 85.5 GHz total sea ice retrievals are compared with in situ snow wetness measurements. This comparison suggests that, despite the higher atmospheric opacity at 85.5 GHz, information about sea ice surface properties that affect emissivity can be obtained from these SSM/I channels. (C) Elsevier Science Inc., 1997.

Lubin, D, Massom R, SpringerLink.  2006.  Polar Remote Sensing Volume I: Atmosphere and Oceans. , Berlin, Heidelberg: Praxis Pub., Chichester, UK Abstract
Lubin, D, Vogelmann AM.  2011.  The influence of mixed-phase clouds on surface shortwave irradiance during the Arctic spring. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres. 116   10.1029/2011jd015761   AbstractWebsite

The influence of mixed-phase stratiform clouds on the surface shortwave irradiance is examined using unique spectral shortwave irradiance measurements made during the Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC), supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program. An Analytical Spectral Devices (ASD, Inc.) spectroradiometer measured downwelling spectral irradiance from 350 to 2200 nm in one-minute averages throughout April-May 2008 from the ARM Climate Research Facility's North Slope of Alaska (NSA) site at Barrow. This study examines spectral irradiance measurements made under single-layer, overcast cloud decks having geometric thickness <3000 m. Cloud optical depth is retrieved from irradiance in the interval 1022-1033 nm. The contrasting surface radiative influences of mixed-phase clouds and liquid-water clouds are discerned using irradiances in the 1.6-mu m window. Compared with liquid-water clouds, mixed-phase clouds during the Arctic spring cause a greater reduction of shortwave irradiance at the surface. At fixed conservative-scattering optical depth (constant optical depth for wavelengths lambda < 1100 nm), the presence of ice water in cloud reduces the near-IR surface irradiance by an additional several watts-per-meter-squared. This additional reduction, or supplemental ice absorption, is typically similar to 5 W m(-2) near solar noon over Barrow, and decreases with increasing solar zenith angle. However, for some cloud decks this additional absorption can be as large as 8-10 W m(-2).

Lubin, D, Kahn BH, Lazzara MA, Rowe P, Walden V.  2015.  Variability in AIRS-retrieved cloud amount and thermodynamic phase over west versus east Antarctica influenced by the SAM. Geophysical Research Letters. 42:1259-1267.   10.1002/2014gl062285   AbstractWebsite

In a sample of summertime cloud retrievals from the NASA Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), a positive Southern Annular Mode (SAM) index polarity is associated with greater cloud frequency and larger effective cloud fraction over West Antarctica compared with a negative SAM index polarity. The opposite result appears over the high East Antarctic Plateau. Comparing AIRS-retrieved cloud fraction with Antarctic Automatic Weather Station 2 m air temperature data, a positive and significant correlation is found over most of West Antarctica, signifying a longwave heating effect of clouds. Over East Antarctica correlations between Sun elevation and 2 m air temperature are strongest, consistent with lower cloud amount.

Lubin, D, Frederick JE.  1990.  Column Ozone Measurements from Palmer-Station, Antarctica - Variations During the Austral Springs of 1988 and 1989. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres. 95:13883-13889.   10.1029/JD095iD09p13883   AbstractWebsite

The National Science Foundation scanning spectroradiometer at Palmer Station, Antarctica (64°46′S, 64°04′W), provides hourly ground-based measurements of solar ultraviolet (UV) irradiance. In addition to defining the UV radiation environment of the region, these measurements allow the derivation of the column density of atmospheric ozone above the station nearly every daylight hour. This hourly time resolution, not generally available from other methods of monitoring Antarctic ozone abundances, enables the detection of large and rapid changes in total column ozone and UV surface irradiance associated with the dynamics of the polar vortex. Column ozone abundance is derived from a ratio of measured irradiances at 300 and 313.5 nanometers (nm) by means of theoretical calculation of this ratio as a function of total ozone amount. Noontime ozone abundances over Palmer Station obtained from this method agree with those obtained by the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument aboard Nimbus 7 to within about 10% throughout the austral spring of 1988. Ozone recovery at Palmer Station, associated with the breakup of the polar vortex as indicated by TOMS satellite ozone observations, occurred rapidly within a 24-hour period beginning in midafternoon on November 15. Over the Antarctic Peninsula, the 1989 ozone depletion was slightly greater than in 1988, the minimum noontime ozone abundances over Palmer Station as measured by the spectroradiometer being 194 and 166 Dobson units for October 14, 1988, and October 14, 1989, respectively. The 1989 ozone depletion however ended by November 5 over the Antarctic Peninsula, 10 days earlier than the 1988 event.

Lubin, D, Cutchin D, Conant W, Grassl H, Schmid U, Biselli W.  1995.  Spectral Longwave Emission in the Tropics - Ftir Measurement at the Sea-Surface and Comparison with Fast Radiation Codes. Journal of Climate. 8:286-295.   10.1175/1520-0442(1995)008<0286:sleitt>;2   AbstractWebsite

Longwave emission by the tropical western Pacific atmosphere has been measured at the ocean surface by a Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroradiometer deployed aboard the research vessel John Vickers as part of the Central Equatorial Pacific Experiment. The instrument operated throughout a Pacific Ocean crossing, beginning on 7 March 1993 in Honiara, Solomon Islands, and ending on 29 March 1993 in Los Angeles, and recorded longwave emission spectra under atmospheres associated with sea surface temperatures ranging from 291.0 to 302.8 K. Precipitable water vapor abundances ranged from 1.9 to 5.5 column centimeters. Measured emission spectra (downwelling zenith radiance) covered the middle infrared (5-20 mu m) with one inverse centimeter spectral resolution. FTIR measurements made under an entirely clear field of view are compared with spectra generated by LOWTRAN 7 and MODTRAN 2, as well as downwelling flux calculated by the NCAR Community Climate Model (CCM-2) radiation code, using radiosonde profiles as input data for these calculations. In the spectral interval 800-1000 cm(-1), these comparisons show a discrepancy between FTIR data and MODTRAN 2 having an overall variability of 6-7 mW m(-2) sr(-1) cm and a concave shape that may be related to the representation of water vapor continuum emission in MODTRAN 2. Another discrepancy appears in the spectral interval 1200-1300 cm(-1), where MODTRAN 2 appears to overestimate zenith radiance by 5 mW m(-2) sr(-1) cm. These discrepancies appear consistently; however, they become only slightly larger at the highest water vapor abundances. Because these radiance discrepancies correspond to broadband (500-2000 cm(-1)) flux uncertainties of around 3 W m(-2), there appear to be no serious inadequacies with the performance of MODTRAN 2 or LOWTRAN 7 at high atmospheric temperatures and water vapor abundances. On average, CCM-2 flux calculations agree to within 1 W m(-2) with downwelling flux estimates from the FTIR data over all sea surface temperatures, although this result has a scatter of +/-12 W m(-2) at high sea surface temperatures.

Lubin, D, Chen JP, Pilewskie P, Ramanathan V, Valero FPJ.  1996.  Microphysical examination of excess cloud absorption in the tropical atmosphere. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres. 101:16961-16972.   10.1029/96jd01154   AbstractWebsite

To investigate the excess shortwave absorption by clouds, a numerical cloud generation model has been coupled to a plane-parallel discrete ordinates radiative transfer model. The former was used in a time-dependent fashion to generate a cumulonimbus turret and three types of cirrus anvil (precipitating, extended, detached) representing three stages of cloud evolution outward from the turret. The cloud particle size distributions, as a function of altitude, were used as input to the radiative transfer model using indices of refraction for pure water and pure ice and equivalent sphere Mie theory. The radiative transfer model was used to calculate the ratio of cloud forcing at the surface to cloud forcing at the top of the atmosphere, both for the broadband shortwave and as a function of wavelength. Recent empirical studies have placed this cloud forcing ratio at around 1.5, and our coupled model results approach this value for small solar zenith angles, when the cloud contains large (>100 mu m) ice particles that absorb significantly in the near infrared (primarily the 1.6-mu m window). However, the empirical studies are based on diurnal averages, and our plane-parallel radiative transfer model yields an area and diurnally averaged cloud forcing ratio of only 1.18 for a tropical cumulonimbus and cirrus anvil system, primarily because of the rapid decrease of the ratio with solar zenith angle. The ratio decreases because of the increase in albedo with solar zenith angle, which is a characteristic feature of plane-parallel clouds. Adding dust or aerosol to the cloud layers, to make them absorb at visible wavelengths, makes the instantaneous cloud forcing ratio larger for an overhead Sun but also makes the solar zenith angle dependence in the cloud forcing ratio more pronounced. These two effects cancel, eliminating interstitial aerosol as a possible explanation for the excess cloud absorption in plane-parallel radiative transfer modeling. The strong dependence of the surface/top of the atmosphere cloud forcing ratio on solar zenith angle may be a fundamental defect with the plane-parallel approach to solar radiative transfer in a cloudy atmosphere.

Lubin, D, Chen B, Bromwich DH, Somerville RCJ, Lee WH, Hines KM.  1998.  The impact of Antarctic cloud radiative properties on a GCM climate simulation. Journal of Climate. 11:447-462.   10.1175/1520-0442(1998)011<0447:tioacr>;2   AbstractWebsite

A sensitivity study to evaluate the impact upon regional and hemispheric climate caused by changing the optical properties of clouds over the Antarctic continent is conducted with the NCAR Community Model version 2 (CCM2). Sensitivity runs are performed in which radiation interacts with ice clouds with particle sizes of 10 and 40 mu m rather than with the standard 10-mu m water clouds. The experiments are carried out for perpetual January conditions with the diurnal cycle considered. The effects of these cloud changes on the Antarctic radiation budget are examined by considering cloud forcing at the top of the atmosphere and net radiation at the surface. Changes of the cloud radiative properties to those of 10-mu m ice clouds over Antarctica have significant Impacts on regional climate: temperature increases throughout the Antarctic troposphere by 1 degrees-2 degrees C and total cloud fraction over Antarctica is smaller than that of the control at low levels but is larger than that of the control in the mid- to upper troposphere. As a result of Antarctic warming and changes in the north-south temperature gradient, the drainage flows at the surface as well as the meridional mass circulation are weakened. Similarly, the circumpolar trough weakens significantly by 4-8 hPa and moves northward by about 4 degrees-5 degrees latitude. This regional mass field adjustment halves the strength of the simulated surface westerly winds. As a result of indirect thermodynamic and dynamic effects, significant changes are observed in the zonal mean circulation and eddies in the middle latitudes. In fact, the simulated impacts of the Antarctic cloud radiative alteration are not confined to the Southern Hemisphere. The meridional mean mass flux, zonal wind, and latent heat release exhibit statistically significant changes in the Tropics and even extratropics of the Northern Hemisphere. The simulation with radiative properties of 40-mu m ice clouds produces colder surface temperatures over Antarctica by up to 3 degrees C compared to the control. Otherwise, the results of the 40-mu m ice cloud simulation are similar to those of the 10-mu m ice cloud simulation.

Lubin, D, Frederick JE.  1991.  The Ultraviolet-Radiation Environment of the Antarctic Peninsula - the Roles of Ozone and Cloud Cover. Journal of Applied Meteorology. 30:478-493.   10.1175/1520-0450(1991)030<0478:tureot>;2   AbstractWebsite

The National Science Foundation scanning spectroradiometer at Palmer Station, Antarctica (64-degrees-46'S, 64-degrees-04'W) provides hourly ground-based measurements of solar ultraviolet (UV) irradiance at the earth's surface. These measurements define the UV radiation environment of the region and, in conjunction with a daily record of sky conditions and radiative transfer modeling, permit a quantitative understanding of the role of cloud cover in regulating UV radiation levels at the Antarctic surface, including the period of the springtime ozone depletion. The transmission properties of cloud types over the Antarctic Peninsula are quantified by taking the ratio of UV-A irradiances measured under them to UV-A irradiances calculated for clear skies and the same solar zenith angle, and the results are then generalized to the UV-B. Under the average overcast sky in the region, UV irradiance at all wavelengths is slightly greater than half of the value for clear skies. Under the thickest overcast layers, UV irradiance at all wavelengths is roughly 20% what it would be if the sky were clear. In a seasonally averaged sense cloudiness has no effect on the percentage enhancement in UV-B surface irradiance that results from the springtime ozone depletion. However, when considering time scales of hours to several days, an increase in cloud cover can be discussed in terms of its ability to attenuate the solar irradiance; in some cases giving a surface UV-B level comparable to that found under an unperturbed ozone column and clear skies. Depending on the amount of ozone depletion and the type of cloud cover, there will always be a wavelength below which surface radiation levels are excessive during spring.

Lubin, D, Holm-Hansen O.  1995.  Atmospheric ozone and the biological impact of solar ultraviolet radiation. Encyclopedia of environmental biology. Vol. 1, A-E. 1( Nierenberg WA, Ed.).:147-168.: Academic Press Abstract
Lubin, D.  1994.  The Role of the Tropical Super Greenhouse-Effect in Heating the Ocean Surface. Science. 265:224-227.   10.1126/science.265.5169.224   AbstractWebsite

Measurements made by a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroradiometer operating in the middle infrared (5 to 20 micrometers, with a spectral resolution of one inverse centimeter) imply that there is an anomalously large greenhouse effect over equatorial oceans that is caused by water vapor. As sea-surface temperature increased from 297 to 303 degrees kelvin, the net infrared cooling at the surface decreased by 30 to 50 watts per square meter. Thus, according to the FTIR data, the super greenhouse effect that had been inferred from satellite measurements contributes directly to radiative heating of the sea surface. The data demonstrate that most of this heating occurs in the middle infrared by means of the continuum emission window of water vapor and that tropical deep convection contributes substantially to this super greenhouse effect.

Lubin, D, Simpson AS.  1997.  Measurement of surface radiation fluxes and cloud optical properties during the 1994 Arctic Ocean Section. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres. 102:4275-4286.   10.1029/96jd03215   AbstractWebsite

During a voyage to the north pole from Alaska by the icebreakers USCGC Polar Sea and Canadian CGC Louis S. St.-Laurent (the 1994 Arctic Ocean Section, July 24 to September 3) an atmospheric radiation and remote sensing experiment measured downwelling shortwave and longwave radiation reaching the sea ice surface. The experiment included a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroradiometer which measured zenith radiance at 1 cm(-1) resolution in the middle infrared wavelength range 5-20 mu m, an Eppley pyranometer measuring most of the downwelling shortwave flux (0.28-2.80 mu m), an Eppley pyranometer measuring the downwelling near-infrared flux (0.78-2.80 mu m), and an Eppley pyrgeometer measuring the downwelling longwave flux. In conjunction with a discrete-ordinates radiative transfer model, the FTIR emission spectra are used to estimate 8-12 mu m cloud emissivity and effective radius of the cloud droplet size distribution. The broadband shortwave flux measurements are used to estimate shortwave cloud scattering optical depth. Most of the FTIR emission spectra recorded under overcast skies are consistent with cloud effective radius in the range 10-12 mu m, but 27% of the spectra are more consistent with the range 4-6 mu m, suggesting an occasional continental aerosol influence to Arctic cloud microphysics. The average daily shortwave cloud-scattering optical depth ranged from 2 to 46, which is similar to a range inferred from radiometer data recorded at Barrow, Alaska, during the same season. The downwelling shortwave flux measurements and estimates of net surface flux are generally consistent with a four-decade Russian climatology but also suggest that the frequency of cloud cover sampled during the 1994 Arctic Ocean Section was somewhat larger than the climatological average. These radiation measurement data from the 1994 Arctic Ocean Section should be useful for examining the treatment of atmospheric radiation and surface energy input in Arctic climate model simulations.

Lubin, D, Vogelmann AM.  2007.  Expected magnitude of the aerosol shortwave indirect effect in springtime Arctic liquid water clouds. Geophysical Research Letters. 34   10.1029/2006gl028750   AbstractWebsite

Radiative transfer simulations are used to assess the expected magnitude of the diurnally-averaged shortwave aerosol first indirect effect in Arctic liquid water clouds, in the context of recently discovered longwave surface heating of order 3 to 8 W m(-2) by this same aerosol effect detected at the Barrow, Alaska, ARM Site. We find that during March and April, shortwave surface cooling by the first indirect effect is comparable in magnitude to the longwave surface heating. During May and June, the shortwave surface cooling exceeds the longwave heating. Due to multiple reflection of photons between the snow or sea ice surface and cloud base, the shortwave first indirect effect may be easier to detect in surface radiation measurements than from space.

Lubin, D, Holm-Hansen O, Helbling EW.  1993.  Ultraviolet radiation and its effects on organisms in aquatic environments. Environmental UV photobiology. ( Young AR, Ed.).:379-345., New York: Plenum Press Abstract