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Frederick, JE, Lubin D.  1988.  The Budget of Biologically-Active Ultraviolet-Radiation in the Earth-Atmosphere System. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres. 93:3825-3832.   10.1029/JD093iD04p03825   AbstractWebsite

This study applies the concept of a budget to describe the interaction of solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation with the Earth-atmosphere system. The wavelength ranges of interest are the biologically relevant UV-B between 280 and 320 nm and the UV-A from 320 to 400 nm. The Nimbus 7 solar backscattered ultraviolet (SBUV) instrument provides measurements of total column ozone and information concerning cloud cover which, in combination with a simple model of radiation transfer, define the fractions of incident solar irradiance absorbed in the atmosphere, reflected to space, and absorbed at the ground. Results for the month of July quantify the contribution of fractional cloud cover and cloud optical thickness to the radiation budget's three components. Scattering within a thick cloud layer makes the downward radiation field at the cloud base more isotropic than is the case for clear skies. For small solar zenith angles, typical of summer midday conditions, the effective path length of this diffuse irradiance through tropospheric ozone is greater than that under clear-sky conditions. The result is an enhanced absorption of UV-B radiation in the troposphere during cloud-covered conditions. Major changes in global cloud cover or cloud optical thicknesses could alter the ultraviolet radiation received by the biosphere by an amount comparable to that predicted for long-term trends in ozone.

Frederick, JE, Lubin D.  1988.  Possible Long-Term Changes in Biologically-Active Ultraviolet-Radiation Reaching the Ground. Photochemistry and Photobiology. 47:571-578.   10.1111/j.1751-1097.1988.tb08846.x   AbstractWebsite

Three scenarios for long-term changes in atmospheric ozone over the time period 1960 to 2030 lead to different projections for the ultraviolet radiation flux at the earth's surface. Biologically effective fluxes for damage to DNA and generalized damage to plants vary by a factor of 10 or more with latitude and season irrespective of possible changes in ozone. The natural latitudinal gradient in radiation corresponds to spatial changes in biologically effective fluxes which are large compared to temporal changes expected from trends in ozone over the time period analyzed. In an extreme scenario of ozone change, based on an assumed increase in chlorofluorocarbon release rates of 3% per year after 1980, the annually integrated effective flux for damage to DNA increases by 13.5% at latitude 40°N between 1960 and 2030. With chlorofluorocarbon release rates held fixed at their 1980 values, the corresponding radiation increase is only 2.3%. In a scenario where atmospheric chlorine remains fixed at its 1960 value, trends in atmospheric methane and nitrous oxide imply a decrease in biologically effective flux at 40°N of 5.3% between 1960 and 2030.