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Bais, AF, Lubin D, Arola A, Bernhard G, Blumthaler M, Chubarova N, Erlick C, Gies HP, Krotkov NA, Lantz K, Mayer B, Mckenzie RL, d. Piacentini R, Seckmeyer G, Slusser JR, Zerefos CZ.  2007.  Surface Ultraviolet Radiation: Past, Present, and Future. Scientific assessment of ozone depletion: 2006. ( Organization W, Ed.)., Geneva, Switzerland: World Meteorological Organization Abstract
Berque, J, Lubin D, Somerville RCJ.  2011.  Transect method for Antarctic cloud property retrieval using AVHRR data. International Journal of Remote Sensing. 32:2887-2903.   10.1080/01431161003745624   AbstractWebsite

For studies of Antarctic climate change, the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) offers a time series spanning more than two decades, with numerous overpasses per day from converging polar orbits, and with radiometrically calibrated thermal infrared channels. However, over the Antarctic Plateau, standard multispectral application of AVHRR data for cloud optical property retrieval with individual pixels is problematic due to poor scene contrasts and measurement uncertainties. We present a method that takes advantage of rapid changes in radiances at well-defined cloud boundaries. We examine a transect of AVHRR-measured radiances in the three thermal infrared channels across a boundary between cloudy and cloud-free parts of the image. Using scatter diagrams, made from the data along this transect, of the brightness temperature differences between channels 3 and 4, and channels 4 and 5, it is possible to fit families of radiative transfer solutions to the data to estimate cloud effective temperature, thermodynamic phase, and effective particle radius. The major approximation with this method is that along such a transect, cloud water path has considerable spatial variability, while effective radius, phase, and cloud temperature have much less variability. To illustrate this method, two AVHRR images centred about the South Pole are analysed. The two images are chosen based on their differing contrasts in brightness temperature between clear and cloud-filled pixels, to demonstrate that our method can work with varying cloud top heights. In one image the data are consistent with radiative transfer simulations using ice cloud. In the other, the data are inconsistent with ice cloud and are well simulated with supercooled liquid water cloud at 241.5 K. This method therefore has potential for climatological investigation of the radiatively important phase transition in the extremely cold and pristine Antarctic environment.

Berque, J, Lubin D, Somerville RCJ.  2004.  Infrared radiative properties of the Antarctic plateau from AVHRR data. Part I: Effect of the snow surface. Journal of Applied Meteorology. 43:350-362.   10.1175/1520-0450(2004)043<0350:irpota>;2   AbstractWebsite

The effective scene temperature, or "brightness temperature," measured in channel 3 (3.5-3.9 m m) of the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) is shown to be sensitive, in principle, to the effective particle size of snow grains on the Antarctic plateau, over the range of snow grain sizes reported in field studies. In conjunction with a discrete ordinate method radiative transfer model that couples the polar atmosphere with a scattering and absorbing snowpack, the thermal infrared channels of the AVHRR instrument can, therefore, be used to estimate effective grain size at the snow surface over Antarctica. This is subject to uncertainties related to the modeled top-of-atmosphere bidirectional reflectance distribution function resulting from the possible presence of sastrugi and to lack of complete knowledge of snow crystal shapes and habits as they influence the scattering phase function. However, when applied to NOAA-11 and NOAA-12 AVHRR data from 1992, the snow grain effective radii of order 50 mum are retrieved, consistent with field observations, with no apparent discontinuity between two spacecraft having different viewing geometries. Retrieved snow grain effective radii are 10-20-mum larger when the snow grains are modeled as hexagonal solid columns rather than as spheres with a Henyey-Greenstein phase function. Despite the above-mentioned uncertainties, the retrievals are consistent enough that one should be able to monitor climatically significant changes in surface snow grain size due to major precipitation events. It is also shown that a realistic representation of the surface snow grain size is critical when retrieving the optical depth and effective particle radius of clouds for the optically thin clouds most frequently encountered over the Antarctic plateau.

Bromwich, DH, Nicolas JP, Hines KM, Kay JE, Key EL, Lazzara MA, Lubin D, McFarquhar GM, Gorodetskaya IV, Grosvenor DP, Lachlan-Cope T, van Lipzig NPM.  2012.  Tropospheric clouds in Antarctica. Reviews of Geophysics. 50   10.1029/2011rg000363   AbstractWebsite

Compared to other regions, little is known about clouds in Antarctica. This arises in part from the challenging deployment of instrumentation in this remote and harsh environment and from the limitations of traditional satellite passive remote sensing over the polar regions. Yet clouds have a critical influence on the ice sheet's radiation budget and its surface mass balance. The extremely low temperatures, absolute humidity levels, and aerosol concentrations found in Antarctica create unique conditions for cloud formation that greatly differ from those encountered in other regions, including the Arctic. During the first decade of the 21st century, new results from field studies, the advent of cloud observations from spaceborne active sensors, and improvements in cloud parameterizations in numerical models have contributed to significant advances in our understanding of Antarctic clouds. This review covers four main topics: (1) observational methods and instruments, (2) the seasonal and interannual variability of cloud amounts, (3) the microphysical properties of clouds and aerosols, and (4) cloud representation in global and regional numerical models. Aside from a synthesis of the existing literature, novel insights are also presented. A new climatology of clouds over Antarctica and the Southern Ocean is derived from combined measurements of the CloudSat and Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) satellites. This climatology is used to assess the forecast cloud amounts in 20th century global climate model simulations. While cloud monitoring over Antarctica from space has proved essential to the recent advances, the review concludes by emphasizing the need for additional in situ measurements.