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Kline, DI, Bryant J, Kisflaudy E, Rohwer G, Nostropaur F, Grayson J, Knowlton N, Rohwer F.  2006.  The aquatic automated dosing and maintenance system (AADAMS). Limnology and Oceanography-Methods. 4:184-192. AbstractWebsite

The maintenance and dosing of aquatic organisms, such as corals and mollusks, are essential for ecotoxicology studies, yet it is difficult to maintain many of these sensitive organisms for an extended period. Consequently, many previous aquatic ecotoxicology experiments have been limited in their number of replicates and maintained in one or a few experimental aquaria, with only a limited number of stressors tested in each experiment. Here we describe a modular system that overcomes many of the difficulties of maintaining large numbers of sensitive aquatic organisms in separate containers, and allows testing of a large suite of stressors in each experiment. The AADAMS (aquatic automated dosing and maintenance system) allows testing of 40 independent stressors with 10 independent replicates per stressor (400 individuals total). The AADAMS provides surge and regular water changes simultaneously with accurate dosing via Venturi valves. In a series of experiments over a 1-year period, the AADAMS was used to test the effects of various factors affecting water quality on Caribbean coral reefs. Roofing tar and road asphalt were two of the most damaging pollutants tested, with LD50 values (lethal dose that killed 50% of the corals) of 0.013 g L-1 and 0.079 g L-1, respectively, thus suggesting that runoff from roads and near-shore construction could be contributing to reef decline. The AADAMS is an accurate, reliable system for highly replicated ecotoxicological studies of sensitive aquatic organisms, which are important indicators of ecosystem health.

Gormley, K, McLellan F, McCabe C, Hinton C, Ferris J, Kline DI, Scott BE.  2018.  Automated Image Analysis of Offshore Infrastructure Marine Biofouling. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering. 6(1):2.: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute Abstract
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Silverman, J, Kline DI, Johnson L, Rivlin T, Schneider K, Erez J, Lazar B, Caldeira K.  2012.  Carbon turnover rates in the One Tree Island reef: A 40-year perspective. Journal of Geophysical Research-Biogeosciences. 117   10.1029/2012jg001974   AbstractWebsite

During November-December 2009 community rates of gross photosynthesis (P-g), respiration (R) and net calcification (G(net)) were estimated from low-tide slack water measurements of dissolved oxygen, dissolved inorganic carbon and total alkalinity at the historical station DK13 One Tree Island reef, Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Compared to measurements made during the 1960s-1970s at DK13 in the same season, P-g increased from 833 to 914 mmol O-2 center dot m(-2).d(-1) and P-g:R increased from 1.14 to 1.30, indicating that the reef has become more autotrophic. In contrast, G(net) decreased from 133 mmol C.m(-2).d(-1) to 74 +/- 24 mmol C.m(-2).d(-1). This decrease stems primarily from the threefold increase in nighttime CaCO3 dissolution from -2.5 mmol.m(-2).h(-1) to -7.5 mmol.m(-2).h(-1). Comparison of the benthic community survey results from DK13 and its vicinity conducted during this study and in studies from the 1970s, 1980s and 1990s suggest that there have been no significant changes in the live coral coverage during the past 40 years. The reduced G(net) most likely reflects the almost threefold increase in dissolution rates, possibly resulting from increased bioerosion due to changes in the biota (e.g., sea cucumbers, boring organisms) and/or from greater chemical dissolution produced by changing abiotic conditions over the past 40 years associated with climate change, such as increased temperatures and ocean acidification. However, at this stage of research on One Tree Island the effects of these changes are not entirely understood.

Eakin, CM, Morgan JA, Heron SF, Smith TB, Liu G, Alvarez-Filip L, Baca B, Bartels E, Bastidas C, Bouchon C, Brandt M, Bruckner AW, Bunkley-Williams L, Cameron A, Causey BD, Chiappone M, Christensen TRL, Crabbe MJC, Day O, de la Guardia E, Diaz-Pulido G, DiResta D, Gil-Agudelo DL, Gilliam DS, Ginsburg RN, Gore S, Guzman HM, Hendee JC, Hernandez-Delgado EA, Husain E, Jeffrey CFG, Jones RJ, Jordan-Dahlgren E, Kaufman LS, Kline DI, Kramer PA, Lang JC, Lirman D, Mallela J, Manfrino C, Marechal JP, Marks K, Mihaly J, Miller WJ, Mueller EM, Muller EM, Toro CAO, Oxenford HA, Ponce-Taylor D, Quinn N, Ritchie KB, Rodriguez S, Ramirez AR, Romano S, Samhouri JF, Sanchez JA, Schmahl GP, Shank BV, Skirving WJ, Steiner SCC, Villamizar E, Walsh SM, Walter C, Weil E, Williams EH, Roberson KW, Yusuf Y.  2010.  Caribbean Corals in Crisis: Record Thermal Stress, Bleaching, and Mortality in 2005. Plos One. 5   10.1371/journal.pone.0013969   AbstractWebsite

Background: The rising temperature of the world's oceans has become a major threat to coral reefs globally as the severity and frequency of mass coral bleaching and mortality events increase. In 2005, high ocean temperatures in the tropical Atlantic and Caribbean resulted in the most severe bleaching event ever recorded in the basin. Methodology/Principal Findings: Satellite-based tools provided warnings for coral reef managers and scientists, guiding both the timing and location of researchers' field observations as anomalously warm conditions developed and spread across the greater Caribbean region from June to October 2005. Field surveys of bleaching and mortality exceeded prior efforts in detail and extent, and provided a new standard for documenting the effects of bleaching and for testing nowcast and forecast products. Collaborators from 22 countries undertook the most comprehensive documentation of basin-scale bleaching to date and found that over 80% of corals bleached and over 40% died at many sites. The most severe bleaching coincided with waters nearest a western Atlantic warm pool that was centered off the northern end of the Lesser Antilles. Conclusions/Significance: Thermal stress during the 2005 event exceeded any observed from the Caribbean in the prior 20 years, and regionally-averaged temperatures were the warmest in over 150 years. Comparison of satellite data against field surveys demonstrated a significant predictive relationship between accumulated heat stress (measured using NOAA Coral Reef Watch's Degree Heating Weeks) and bleaching intensity. This severe, widespread bleaching and mortality will undoubtedly have long-term consequences for reef ecosystems and suggests a troubled future for tropical marine ecosystems under a warming climate.

Neal, BP, Khen A, Treibitz T, Beijbom O, O'Connor G, Coffroth MA, Knowlton N, Kriegman D, Mitchell BG, Kline DI.  2017.  Caribbean massive corals not recovering from repeated thermal stress events during 2005-2013. Ecology and Evolution. 7:1339-1353.   10.1002/ece3.2706   AbstractWebsite

Massive coral bleaching events associated with high sea surface temperatures are forecast to become more frequent and severe in the future due to climate change. Monitoring colony recovery from bleaching disturbances over multiyear time frames is important for improving predictions of future coral community changes. However, there are currently few multiyear studies describing long-term outcomes for coral colonies following acute bleaching events. We recorded colony pigmentation and size for bleached and unbleached groups of co-located conspecifics of three major reef-building scleractinian corals (Orbicella franksi, Siderastrea siderea, and Stephanocoenia michelini; n=198 total) in Bocas del Toro, Panama, during the major 2005 bleaching event and then monitored pigmentation status and changes live tissue colony size for 8years (2005-2013). Corals that were bleached in 2005 demonstrated markedly different response trajectories compared to unbleached colony groups, with extensive live tissue loss for bleached corals of all species following bleaching, with mean live tissue losses per colony 9 months postbleaching of 26.2% (+/- 5.4 SE) for O. franksi, 35.7% (+/- 4.7 SE) for S. michelini, and 11.2% (+/- 3.9 SE) for S. siderea. Two species, O. franksi and S. michelini, later recovered to net positive growth, which continued until a second thermal stress event in 2010. Following this event, all species again lost tissue, with previously unbleached colony species groups experiencing greater declines than conspecific sample groups, which were previously bleached, indicating a possible positive acclimative response. However, despite this beneficial effect for previously bleached corals, all groups experienced substantial net tissue loss between 2005 and 2013, indicating that many important Caribbean reef-building corals will likely suffer continued tissue loss and may be unable to maintain current benthic coverage when faced with future thermal stress forecast for the region, even with potential benefits from bleaching-related acclimation.

Gonzalez-Rivero, M, Bongaerts P, Beijbom O, Pizarro O, Friedman A, Rodriguez-Ramirez A, Upcroft B, Laffoley D, Kline D, Bailhache C, Vevers R, Hoegh-Guldberg O.  2014.  The Catlin Seaview Survey - kilometre-scale seascape assessment, and monitoring of coral reef ecosystems. Aquatic Conservation-Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems. 24:184-198.   10.1002/aqc.2505   AbstractWebsite

Marine ecosystems provide critically important goods and services to society, and hence their accelerated degradation underpins an urgent need to take rapid, ambitious and informed decisions regarding their conservation and management.The capacity, however, to generate the detailed field data required to inform conservation planning at appropriate scales is limited by time and resource consuming methods for collecting and analysing field data at the large scales required.The Catlin Seaview Survey', described here, introduces a novel framework for large-scale monitoring of coral reefs using high-definition underwater imagery collected using customized underwater vehicles in combination with computer vision and machine learning. This enables quantitative and geo-referenced outputs of coral reef features such as habitat types, benthic composition, and structural complexity (rugosity) to be generated across multiple kilometre-scale transects with a spatial resolution ranging from 2 to 6m(2).The novel application of technology described here has enormous potential to contribute to our understanding of coral reefs and associated impacts by underpinning management decisions with kilometre-scale measurements of reef health.Imagery datasets from an initial survey of 500km of seascape are freely available through an online tool called the Catlin Global Reef Record. Outputs from the image analysis using the technologies described here will be updated on the online repository as work progresses on each dataset.Case studies illustrate the utility of outputs as well as their potential to link to information from remote sensing. The potential implications of the innovative technologies on marine resource management and conservation are also discussed, along with the accuracy and efficiency of the methodologies deployed.10.1002/(ISSN)1099-0755 Copyright (c) 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Tresguerres, M, Barott K, Barron ME, Deheyn D, Kline D, Linsmayer LB.  2017.  Cell Biology of Reef-Building Corals: Ion Transport, Acid/Base Regulation, and Energy Metabolism. Acid-Base Balance and Nitrogen Excretion in Invertebrates. ( Weihrauch D, O'Donnell M, Eds.).:193-218.: Springer International Publishing   10.1007/978-3-319-39617-0_7   Abstract

Coral reefs are built by colonial cnidarians that establish a symbiotic relationship with dinoflagellate algae of the genus Symbiodinium. The processes of photosynthesis, calcification, and general metabolism require the transport of diverse ions across several cellular membranes and generate waste products that induce acid/base and oxidative stress. This chapter reviews the current knowledge on coral cell biology with a focus on ion transport and acid/base regulation while also discussing related aspects of coral energy metabolism.

Silverman, J, Schneider K, Kline DI, Rivlin T, Rivlin A, Hamylton S, Lazar B, Erez J, Caldeira K.  2014.  Community calcification in Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef: A 33 year perspective. Geochimica Et Cosmochimica Acta. 144:72-81.   10.1016/j.gca.2014.09.011   AbstractWebsite

Measurements of community calcification (G(net)) were made during September 2008 and October 2009 on a reef flat in Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia, 33 years after the first measurements were made there by the LIMER expedition in 1975. In 2008 and 2009 we measured G(net) = 61 +/- 12 and 54 +/- 13 mmol CaCO3 m(-2).day(-1), respectively. These rates are 27-49% lower than those measured during the same season in 1975-76. These rates agree well with those estimated from the measured temperature and degree of aragonite saturation using a reef calcification rate equation developed from observations in a Red Sea coral reef. Community structure surveys across the Lizard Island reef flat during our study using the same methods employed in 1978 showed that live coral coverage had not changed significantly (similar to 8%). However, it should be noted that the uncertainty in the live coral coverage estimates in this study and in 1978 were fairly large and inherent to this methodology. Using the reef calcification rate equation while assuming that seawater above the reef was at equilibrium with atmospheric PCO2 and given that live coral cover had not changed G(net) should have declined by 30 +/- 8% since the LIMER study as indeed observed. We note, however, that the error in estimated G(net) decrease relative to the 1970's could be much larger due to the uncertainties in the coral coverage measurements. Nonetheless, the similarity between the predicted and the measured decrease in G(net) suggests that ocean acidification may be the primary cause for the lower CaCO3 precipitation rate on the Lizard Island reef flat. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Wegley, L, Yu YN, Breitbart M, Casas V, Kline DI, Rohwer F.  2004.  Coral-associated archaea. Marine Ecology-Progress Series. 273:89-96.   10.3354/meps273089   AbstractWebsite

The coral holobiont includes the coral, zooxanthellae, fungi, endolithic algae, and >30 species of Bacteria. Using culture-independent techniques, we now show that Archaea are also abundant and widespread on corals. Sequence analyses of Archaea on 3 species of Caribbean corals revealed that coral-associated Archaea are novel, diverse, and include representatives from both the Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota. Unlike zooxanthellae and Bacteria, the Archaea do not appear to form species-specific associations with reef-building corals. Fluorescent in situ hybridizations with peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probes showed that Archaea were present at >10(7) cells cm(-2) on Porites astreoides, comprising nearly half of the prokaryotic community. This study and one by Kellogg (Mar Ecol Prog Ser 273:81-88) show that Archaea are abundant, diverse, and potentially important components of the coral holobiont.

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Reymond, CE, Lloyd A, Kline DI, Dove SG, Pandolfi JM.  2013.  Decline in growth of foraminifer Marginopora rossi under eutrophication and ocean acidification scenarios. Global Change Biology. 19:291-302.   10.1111/gcb.12035   AbstractWebsite

The combination of global and local stressors is leading to a decline in coral reef health globally. In the case of eutrophication, increased concentrations of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and phosphorus (DIP) are largely attributed to local land use changes. From the global perspective, increased atmospheric CO2 levels are not only contributing to global warming but also ocean acidification (OA). Both eutrophication and OA have serious implications for calcium carbonate production and dissolution among calcifying organisms. In particular, benthic foraminifera precipitate the most soluble form of mineral calcium carbonate (high-Mg calcite), potentially making them more sensitive to dissolution. In this study, a manipulative orthogonal two-factor experiment was conducted to test the effects of dissolved inorganic nutrients and OA on the growth, respiration and photophysiology of the large photosymbiont-bearing benthic foraminifer, Marginopora rossi. This study found the growth rate of M. rossi was inhibited by the interaction of eutrophication and acidification. The relationship between M. rossi and its photosymbionts became destabilized due to the photosymbiont's release from nutrient limitation in the nitrate-enriched treatment, as shown by an increase in zooxanthellae cells per host surface area. Foraminifers from the OA treatments had an increased amount of Chl a per cell, suggesting a greater potential to harvest light energy, however, there was no net benefit to the foraminifer growth. Overall, this study demonstrates that the impacts of OA and eutrophication are dose dependent and interactive. This research indicates an OA threshold at pH 7.6, alone or in combination with eutrophication, will lead to a decline in M. rossi calcification. The decline in foraminifera calcification associated with pollution and OA will have broad ecological implications across their ubiquitous range and suggests that without mitigation it could have serious implications for the future of coral reefs.

Nash, MC, Opdyke BN, Troitzsch U, Russell BD, Adey WH, Kato A, Diaz-Pulido G, Brent C, Gardner M, Prichard J, Kline DI.  2013.  Dolomite rich coral reef coralline algae resist dissolution in acidified conditions.. Nature Climate Change. 3:268-272.   10.1038/nclimate1760   Abstract

Coral reef ecosystems develop best in high-flow environments but their fragile frameworks are also vulnerable to high wave energy. Wave-resistant algal rims, predominantly made up of the crustose coralline algae (CCA) Porolithon onkodes and P. pachydermum1, 2, are therefore critical structural elements for the survival of many shallow coral reefs. Concerns are growing about the susceptibility of CCA to ocean acidification because CCA Mg-calcite skeletons are more susceptible to dissolution under low pH conditions than coral aragonite skeletons3. However, the recent discovery4 of dolomite (Mg0.5Ca0.5(CO3)), a stable carbonate5, in P. onkodes cells necessitates a reappraisal of the impacts of ocean acidification on these CCA. Here we show, using a dissolution experiment, that dried dolomite-rich CCA have 6–10 times lower rates of dissolution than predominantly Mg-calcite CCA in both high-CO2 (~ 700 ppm) and control (~ 380 ppm) environments, respectively. We reveal this stabilizing mechanism to be a combination of reduced porosity due to dolomite infilling and selective dissolution of other carbonate minerals. Physical break-up proceeds by dissolution of Mg-calcite walls until the dolomitized cell eventually drops out intact. Dolomite-rich CCA frameworks are common in shallow coral reefs globally and our results suggest that it is likely that they will continue to provide protection and stability for coral reef frameworks as CO2

Diaz-Pulido, G, McCook LJ, Dove S, Berkelmans R, Roff G, Kline DI, Weeks S, Evans RD, Williamson DH, Hoegh-Guldberg O.  2009.  Doom and boom on a resilient reef: climate change, agal overgrowth and coral recovery. Plos One. 4   10.1371/journal.pone.0005239   AbstractWebsite

Background: Coral reefs around the world are experiencing large-scale degradation, largely due to global climate change, overfishing, diseases and eutrophication. Climate change models suggest increasing frequency and severity of warming-induced coral bleaching events, with consequent increases in coral mortality and algal overgrowth. Critically, the recovery of damaged reefs will depend on the reversibility of seaweed blooms, generally considered to depend on grazing of the seaweed, and replenishment of corals by larvae that successfully recruit to damaged reefs. These processes usually take years to decades to bring a reef back to coral dominance. Methodology/Principal Findings: In 2006, mass bleaching of corals on inshore reefs of the Great Barrier Reef caused high coral mortality. Here we show that this coral mortality was followed by an unprecedented bloom of a single species of unpalatable seaweed (Lobophora variegata), colonizing dead coral skeletons, but that corals on these reefs recovered dramatically, in less than a year. Unexpectedly, this rapid reversal did not involve reestablishment of corals by recruitment of coral larvae, as often assumed, but depended on several ecological mechanisms previously underestimated. Conclusions/Significance: These mechanisms of ecological recovery included rapid regeneration rates of remnant coral tissue, very high competitive ability of the corals allowing them to out-compete the seaweed, a natural seasonal decline in the particular species of dominant seaweed, and an effective marine protected area system. Our study provides a key example of the doom and boom of a highly resilient reef, and new insights into the variability and mechanisms of reef resilience under rapid climate change.

Hamilton, TJ, Tresguerres M, Kline DI.  2017.  Dopamine D1 receptor activation leads to object recognition memory in a coral reef fish. Biology Letters. 13   10.1098/rsbl.2017.0183   Abstract

Object recognition memory is the ability to identify previously seen objects and is an adaptive mechanism that increases survival for many species throughout the animal kingdom. Previously believed to be possessed by only the highest order mammals, it is now becoming clear that fish are also capable of this type of memory formation. Similar to the mammalian hippocampus, the dorsolateral pallium regulates distinct memory processes and is modulated by neurotransmitters such as dopamine. Caribbean bicolour damselfish (Stegastes partitus) live in complex environments dominated by coral reef structures and thus likely possess many types of complex memory abilities including object recognition. This study used a novel object recognition test in which fish were first presented two identical objects, then after a retention interval of 10 min with no objects, the fish were presented with a novel object and one of the objects they had previously encountered in the first trial. We demonstrate that the dopamine D1-receptor agonist (SKF 38393) induces the formation of object recognition memories in these fish. Thus, our results suggest that dopamine-receptor mediated enhancement of spatial memory formation in fish represents an evolutionarily conserved mechanism in vertebrates.

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Crawley, A, Kline DI, Dunn S, Anthony K, Dove S.  2010.  The effect of ocean acidification on symbiont photorespiration and productivity in Acropora formosa. Global Change Biology. 16:851-863.   10.1111/j.1365-2486.2009.01943.x   AbstractWebsite

Ocean acidification is expected to lower the net accretion of coral reefs yet little is known about its effect on coral photophysiology. This study investigated the effect of increasing CO(2) on photosynthetic capacity and photoprotection in Acropora formosa. The photoprotective role of photorespiration within dinoflagellates (genus Symbiodinium) has largely been overlooked due to focus on the presence of a carbon-concentrating mechanism despite the evolutionary persistence of a Form II Rubisco. The photorespiratory fixation of oxygen produces phosphoglycolate that would otherwise inhibit carbon fixation though the Calvin cycle if it were not converted to glycolate by phosphoglycolate phosphatase (PGPase). Glycolate is then either excreted or dealt with by enzymes in the photorespiratory glycolate and/or glycerate pathways adding to the pool of carbon fixed in photosynthesis. We found that CO(2) enrichment led to enhanced photoacclimation (increased chlorophyll a per cell) to the subsaturating light levels. Light-enhanced dark respiration per cell and xanthophyll de-epoxidation increased, with resultant decreases in photosynthetic capacity (P(nmax)) per chlorophyll. The conservative CO(2) emission scenario (A1B; 600-790 ppm) led to a 38% increase in the P(nmax) per cell whereas the 'business-as-usual' scenario (A1F1; 1160-1500 ppm) led to a 45% reduction in PGPase expression and no change in P(nmax) per cell. These findings support an important functional role for PGPase in dinoflagellates that is potentially compromised under CO(2) enrichment.

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Nash, MC, Troitzsch U, Opdyke BN, Trafford JM, Russell BD, Kline DI.  2011.  First discovery of dolomite and magnesite in living coralline algae and its geobiological implications. Biogeosciences. 8:3331-3340.   10.5194/bg-8-3331-2011   AbstractWebsite

Dolomite is a magnesium-rich carbonate mineral abundant in fossil carbonate reef platforms but surprisingly rare in modern sedimentary environments, a conundrum known as the "Dolomite Problem". Marine sedimentary dolomite has been interpreted to form by an unconfirmed, post-depositional diagenetic process, despite minimal experimental success at replicating this. Here we show that dolomite, accompanied by magnesite, forms within living crustose coralline alga, Hydrolithon onkodes, a prolific global tropical reef species. Chemical micro-analysis of the coralline skeleton reveals that not only are the cell walls calcitised, but that cell spaces are typically filled with magnesite, rimmed by dolomite, or both. Mineralogy was confirmed by X-ray Diffraction. Thus there are at least three mineral phases present (magnesium calcite, dolomite and magnesite) rather than one or two (magnesium calcite and brucite) as previously thought. Our results are consistent with dolomite occurrences in coralline algae rich environments in fossil reefs of the last 60 million years. We reveal that the standard method of removing organic material prior to Xray Diffraction analysis can result in a decrease in the most obvious dolomite and magnesite diffraction patterns and this may explain why the abundant protodolomite and magnesite discovered in this study has not previously been recognized. This discovery of dolomite in living coralline algae extends the range of palaeo-environments for which biologically initiated dolomite can be considered a possible source of primary dolomite.

Gattuso, JP, Kirkwood W, Barry JP, Cox E, Gazeau F, Hansson L, Hendriks I, Kline DI, Mahacek P, Martin S, McElhany P, Peltzer ET, Reeve J, Roberts D, Saderne V, Tait K, Widdicombe S, Brewer PG.  2014.  Free-ocean CO2 enrichment (FOCE) systems: present status and future developments. Biogeosciences. 11:4057-4075.   10.5194/bg-11-4057-2014   AbstractWebsite

Free-ocean CO2 enrichment (FOCE) systems are designed to assess the impact of ocean acidification on biological communities in situ for extended periods of time (weeks to months). They overcome some of the drawbacks of laboratory experiments and field observations by enabling (1) precise control of CO2 enrichment by monitoring pH as an offset of ambient pH, (2) consideration of indirect effects such as those mediated through interspecific relationships and food webs, and (3) relatively long experiments with intact communities. Bringing perturbation experiments from the laboratory to the field is, however, extremely challenging. The main goal of this paper is to provide guidelines on the general design, engineering, and sensor options required to conduct FOCE experiments. Another goal is to introduce xFOCE, a community-led initiative to promote awareness, provide resources for in situ perturbation experiments, and build a user community. Present and existing FOCE systems are briefly described and examples of data collected presented. Future developments are also addressed as it is anticipated that the next generation of FOCE systems will include, in addition to pH, options for oxygen and/or temperature control. FOCE systems should become an important experimental approach for projecting the future response of marine ecosystems to environmental change.

Dove, SG, Kline DI, Pantos O, Angly FE, Tyson GW, Hoegh-Guldberg O.  2013.  Future reef decalcification under a business-as-usual CO2 emission scenario. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 110:15342-15347.   10.1073/pnas.1302701110   AbstractWebsite

Increasing atmospheric partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) is a major threat to coral reefs, but some argue that the threat is mitigated by factors such as the variability in the response of coral calcification to acidification, differences in bleaching susceptibility, and the potential for rapid adaptation to anthropogenic warming. However the evidence for these mitigating factors tends to involve experimental studies on corals, as opposed to coral reefs, and rarely includes the influence of multiple variables (e.g., temperature and acidification) within regimes that include diurnal and seasonal variability. Here, we demonstrate that the inclusion of all these factors results in the decalcification of patch-reefs under business-as-usual scenarios and reduced, although positive, calcification under reduced-emission scenarios. Primary productivity was found to remain constant across all scenarios, despite significant bleaching and coral mortality under both future scenarios. Daylight calcification decreased and nocturnal decalcification increased sharply from the preindustrial and control conditions to the future scenarios of low (reduced emissions) and high (business-as-usual) increases in pCO2. These changes coincided with deeply negative carbonate budgets, a shift toward smaller carbonate sediments, and an increase in the abundance of sediment microbes under the business-as-usual emission scenario. Experimental coral reefs demonstrated highest net calcification rates and lowest rates of coral mortality under preindustrial conditions, suggesting that reef processes may not have been able to keep pace with the relatively minor environmental changes that have occurred during the last century. Taken together, our results have serious implications for the future of coral reefs under business-as-usual environmental changes projected for the coming decades and century.

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Beijbom, O, Treibitz T, Kline DI, Eyal G, Khen A, Neal B, Loya Y, Mitchell GB, Kriegman D.  2016.  Improving automated annotation of benthic survey images using wide-band fluorescence. Scientific reports. 6:23166.: Nature Publishing Group Abstract
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Diaz-Pulido, G, Anthony KRN, Kline DI, Dove S, Hoegh-Guldberg O.  2012.  Interactions between ocean acidification and warming on the mortality and dissolution of coralline algae. Journal of Phycology. 48:32-39.   10.1111/j.1529-8817.2011.01084.x   AbstractWebsite

Coralline algae are among the most sensitive calcifying organisms to ocean acidification as a result of increased atmospheric carbon dioxide (pCO2). Little is known, however, about the combined impacts of increased pCO2, ocean acidification, and sea surface temperature on tissue mortality and skeletal dissolution of coralline algae. To address this issue, we conducted factorial manipulative experiments of elevated CO2 and temperature and examined the consequences on tissue survival and skeletal dissolution of the crustose coralline alga (CCA) Porolithon (=Hydrolithon) onkodes (Heydr.) Foslie (Corallinaceae, Rhodophyta) on the southern Great Barrier Reef (GBR), Australia. We observed that warming amplified the negative effects of high pCO2 on the health of the algae: rates of advanced partial mortality of CCA increased from <1% to 9% under high CO2 (from 400 to 1,100 ppm) and exacerbated to 15% under warming conditions (from 26 degrees C to 29 degrees C). Furthermore, the effect of pCO2 on skeletal dissolution strongly depended on temperature. Dissolution of P. onkodes only occurred in the high-pCO2 treatment and was greater in the warm treatment. Enhanced skeletal dissolution was also associated with a significant increase in the abundance of endolithic algae. Our results demonstrate that P. onkodes is particularly sensitive to ocean acidification under warm conditions, suggesting that previous experiments focused on ocean acidification alone have underestimated the impact of future conditions on coralline algae. Given the central role that coralline algae play within coral reefs, these conclusions have serious ramifications for the integrity of coral-reef ecosystems.

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Kaniewska, P, Campbell PR, Kline DI, Rodriguez-Lanetty M, Miller DJ, Dove S, Hoegh-Guldberg O.  2012.  Major cellular and physiological impacts of ocean acidification on a reef building coral. Plos One. 7   10.1371/journal.pone.0034659   AbstractWebsite

As atmospheric levels of CO2 increase, reef-building corals are under greater stress from both increased sea surface temperatures and declining sea water pH. To date, most studies have focused on either coral bleaching due to warming oceans or declining calcification due to decreasing oceanic carbonate ion concentrations. Here, through the use of physiology measurements and cDNA microarrays, we show that changes in pH and ocean chemistry consistent with two scenarios put forward by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) drive major changes in gene expression, respiration, photosynthesis and symbiosis of the coral, Acropora millepora, before affects on biomineralisation are apparent at the phenotype level. Under high CO2 conditions corals at the phenotype level lost over half their Symbiodinium populations, and had a decrease in both photosynthesis and respiration. Changes in gene expression were consistent with metabolic suppression, an increase in oxidative stress, apoptosis and symbiont loss. Other expression patterns demonstrate upregulation of membrane transporters, as well as the regulation of genes involved in membrane cytoskeletal interactions and cytoskeletal remodeling. These widespread changes in gene expression emphasize the need to expand future studies of ocean acidification to include a wider spectrum of cellular processes, many of which may occur before impacts on calcification.

Calamia, MA, Kline DI, Kago S, Donovan K, Dulunaqio S, Tabaleka T, Mitchell BG.  2010.  Marine-based community conserved areas in Fiji: an example of indigenous governance and partnership. Indigenous peoples and conservation: from rights to resource management. ( Walker Painemilla K, Rylands AB, Woofter A, Hughers C, Eds.).:95-114., Arlington, VA.: Conservation International Abstract
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Levitan, DR, Fukami H, Jara J, Kline D, McGovern TM, McGhee KE, Swanson CA, Knowlton N.  2004.  Mechanisms of reproductive isolation among sympatric broadcast-spawning corals of the Montastraea annularis species complex. Evolution. 58:308-323.   10.1554/02-700   AbstractWebsite

Many coral species spawn simultaneously and have compatible gametes, leading to controversy over the nature of species boundaries and the frequency with which hybridization occurs. Three western Atlantic corals, Montastraea annularis, M. faveolata, and M. franksi, typify this controversy; they all spawn sympatrically on the same evenings after the fall full moons. Here we show, in both Panama and the Bahamas for multiple years, how a variety of mechanisms may act in concert to reproductively isolate all three species. Field studies indicate that M. franksi spawns two hours earlier than the other two species, and the eggs released during this earlier period disperse an average of 500 m by the time the other species spawn. Field measures of fertilization indicate that peak fertilization occurs when spawning synchrony is high and that corals that spawn at the tails of the spawning distributions have greatly reduced fertilization success. Laboratory studies indicate that there is a gametic incompatibility between M. faveolata and the other two species. There are regional differences in the gametic compatibility of M. franksi and M. annularis. In Panama, the two species are completely compatible, whereas in the Bahamas, M. franksi sperm can fertilize M. annularis eggs but the reciprocal cross often fails. Gamete age influences patterns of fertilization, such that very young eggs seem resistant to fertilization and old sperm lose viability after two hours. In sum, the combination of temporal differences in spawning, sperm aging, gamete dispersal and dilution, and gametic incompatibility act in various combinations among the three species, making it unlikely that hybrid fertilization would occur.

Bongaerts, P, Bridge TCL, Kline DI, Muir PR, Wallace CC, Hoegh-Guldberg O, Beaman RJ.  2011.  Mesophotic coral ecosystems on the walls of Coral Sea atolls. Coral Reefs. 30:335-335.   10.1007/s00338-011-0725-7   Website
Neal, BP, Lin TH, Winter RN, Treibitz T, Beijbom O, Kriegman D, Kline DI, Mitchell BG.  2015.  Methods and measurement variance for field estimations of coral colony planar area using underwater photographs and semi-automated image. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. 187   10.1007/s10661-015-4690-4   AbstractWebsite

Size and growth rates for individual colonies are some of the most essential descriptive parameters for understanding coral communities, which are currently experiencing worldwide declines in health and extent. Accurately measuring coral colony size and changes over multiple years can reveal demographic, growth, or mortality patterns often not apparent from shortterm observations and can expose environmental stress responses that may take years to manifest. Describing community size structure can reveal population dynamics patterns, such as periods of failed recruitment or patterns of colony fission, which have implications for the future sustainability of these ecosystems. However, rapidly and non-invasively measuring coral colony sizes in situ remains a difficult task, as three-dimensional underwater digital reconstruction methods are currently not practical for large numbers of colonies. Twodimensional (2D) planar area measurements from projection of underwater photographs are a practical size proxy, although this method presents operational difficulties in obtaining well-controlled photographs in the highly rugose environment of the coral reef, and requires extensive time for image processing. Here, we present and test the measurement variance for a method of making rapid planar area estimates of small to medium-sized coral colonies using a lightweight monopod image-framing system and a custom semiautomated image segmentation analysis program. This method demonstrated a coefficient of variation of 2.26 % for repeated measurements in realistic ocean conditions, a level of error appropriate for rapid, inexpensive field studies of coral size structure, inferring change in colony size over time, or measuring bleaching or disease extent of large numbers of individual colonies.