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Gattuso, JP, Kirkwood W, Barry JP, Cox E, Gazeau F, Hansson L, Hendriks I, Kline DI, Mahacek P, Martin S, McElhany P, Peltzer ET, Reeve J, Roberts D, Saderne V, Tait K, Widdicombe S, Brewer PG.  2014.  Free-ocean CO2 enrichment (FOCE) systems: present status and future developments. Biogeosciences. 11:4057-4075.   10.5194/bg-11-4057-2014   AbstractWebsite

Free-ocean CO2 enrichment (FOCE) systems are designed to assess the impact of ocean acidification on biological communities in situ for extended periods of time (weeks to months). They overcome some of the drawbacks of laboratory experiments and field observations by enabling (1) precise control of CO2 enrichment by monitoring pH as an offset of ambient pH, (2) consideration of indirect effects such as those mediated through interspecific relationships and food webs, and (3) relatively long experiments with intact communities. Bringing perturbation experiments from the laboratory to the field is, however, extremely challenging. The main goal of this paper is to provide guidelines on the general design, engineering, and sensor options required to conduct FOCE experiments. Another goal is to introduce xFOCE, a community-led initiative to promote awareness, provide resources for in situ perturbation experiments, and build a user community. Present and existing FOCE systems are briefly described and examples of data collected presented. Future developments are also addressed as it is anticipated that the next generation of FOCE systems will include, in addition to pH, options for oxygen and/or temperature control. FOCE systems should become an important experimental approach for projecting the future response of marine ecosystems to environmental change.

Kline, DI, Bryant J, Kisflaudy E, Rohwer G, Nostropaur F, Grayson J, Knowlton N, Rohwer F.  2006.  The aquatic automated dosing and maintenance system (AADAMS). Limnology and Oceanography-Methods. 4:184-192. AbstractWebsite

The maintenance and dosing of aquatic organisms, such as corals and mollusks, are essential for ecotoxicology studies, yet it is difficult to maintain many of these sensitive organisms for an extended period. Consequently, many previous aquatic ecotoxicology experiments have been limited in their number of replicates and maintained in one or a few experimental aquaria, with only a limited number of stressors tested in each experiment. Here we describe a modular system that overcomes many of the difficulties of maintaining large numbers of sensitive aquatic organisms in separate containers, and allows testing of a large suite of stressors in each experiment. The AADAMS (aquatic automated dosing and maintenance system) allows testing of 40 independent stressors with 10 independent replicates per stressor (400 individuals total). The AADAMS provides surge and regular water changes simultaneously with accurate dosing via Venturi valves. In a series of experiments over a 1-year period, the AADAMS was used to test the effects of various factors affecting water quality on Caribbean coral reefs. Roofing tar and road asphalt were two of the most damaging pollutants tested, with LD50 values (lethal dose that killed 50% of the corals) of 0.013 g L-1 and 0.079 g L-1, respectively, thus suggesting that runoff from roads and near-shore construction could be contributing to reef decline. The AADAMS is an accurate, reliable system for highly replicated ecotoxicological studies of sensitive aquatic organisms, which are important indicators of ecosystem health.