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Bax, NJ, Appeltans W, Brainard R, Duffy JE, Dunstan P, Hanich Q, Davies HH, Hills J, Miloslavich P, Muller-Karger FE, Simmons S, Aburto-Oropeza O, Batten S, Benedetti-Cecchi L, Checkley D, Chiba S, Fischer A, Garcia MA, Gunn J, Klein E, Kudela RM, Marsac F, Obura D, Shin YJ, Sloyan B, Tanhua T, Wilkin J.  2018.  Linking capacity development to GOOS monitoring networks to achieve sustained ocean observation. Frontiers in Marine Science. 5   10.3389/fmars.2018.00346   AbstractWebsite

Developing enduring capacity to monitor ocean life requires investing in people and their institutions to build infrastructure, ownership, and long-term support networks. International initiatives can enhance access to scientific data, tools and methodologies, and develop local expertise to use them, but without ongoing engagement may fail to have lasting benefit. Linking capacity development and technology transfer to sustained ocean monitoring is a win-win proposition. Trained local experts will benefit from joining global communities of experts who are building the comprehensive Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS). This two-way exchange will benefit scientists and policy makers in developing and developed countries. The first step toward the GOOS is complete: identification of an initial set of biological Essential Ocean Variables (EOVs) that incorporate the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) Essential Biological Variables (EBVs), and link to the physical and biogeochemical EOVs. EOVs provide a globally consistent approach to monitoring where the costs of monitoring oceans can be shared and where capacity and expertise can be transferred globally. Integrating monitoring with existing international reporting and policy development connects ocean observations with agreements underlying many countries' commitments and obligations, including under SDG 14, thus catalyzing progress toward sustained use of the ocean. Combining scientific expertise with international capacity development initiatives can help meet the need of developing countries to engage in the agreed United Nations (UN) initiatives including new negotiations for the conservation and sustainable use of marine biological diversity of areas beyond national jurisdiction, and the needs of the global community to understand how the ocean is changing.

Checkley, DM, Asch RG, Rykaczewski RR.  2017.  Climate, anchovy, and sardine. Annual Review of Marine Sciences, Vol 9. 9:469-493., Palo Alto: Annual Reviews   10.1146/annurev-marine-122414-033819   Abstract

Anchovy and sardine populated productive ocean regions over hundreds of thousands of years under a naturally varying climate, and are now subject to climate change of equal or greater magnitude occurring over decades to centuries. We hypothesize that anchovy and sardine populations are limited in size by the supply of nitrogen from outside their habitats originating from upwelling, mixing, and rivers. Projections of the responses of anchovy and sardine to climate change rely on a range of model types and consideration of the effects of climate on lower trophic levels, the effects of fishing on higher trophic levels, and the traits of these two types of fish. Distribution, phenology, nutrient supply, plankton composition and production, habitat compression, fishing, and acclimation and adaptation may be affected by ocean warming, acidification, deoxygenation, and altered hydrology. Observations of populations and evaluation of model skill are essential to resolve the effects of climate change on these fish.

Checkley, DM, Davis RE, Herman AW, Jackson GA, Beanlands B, Regier LA.  2008.  Assessing plankton and other particles in situ with the SOLOPC. Limnology and Oceanography. 53:2123-2136.   10.4319/lo.2008.53.5_part_2.2123   AbstractWebsite

We combined a Sounding Oceanographic Lagrangian Observer float with a Laser Optical Plankton Counter (LOPC) and a fluorometer to make an autonomous biological profiler, the SOLOPC. The instrument senses plankton and other particles over a size range of 100 mm to 1 cm in profiles to 300 m in depth and sends data ashore via satellite. Objects sensed by the LOPC include aggregates and zooplankton, the larger of which can be distinguished from one another by their transparency. We hypothesized that the diel production of particles and their loss by sinking and grazing are reflected in the change of the particle distribution. We present data from four deployments of the SOLOPC off California. Particle volume was maximal at the base of the surface mixed layer and correlated with chlorophyll a fluorescence. In a 3-d deployment in 2005, particle volume was greatest in the early evening and smallest in the morning, and average particle size increased with depth. Eigenvector analysis of the particle volume distribution as a function of diameter for each of the deployments yielded size peaks characteristic of planktonic crustaceans. Ship-based measurements showed that the abundance of opaque particles of 1.1-1.7 mm equivalent spherical diameter was positively correlated with copepods of this size and simultaneously collected in nets. This relationship was used with SOLOPC data to estimate the distribution of large copepods, which were most abundant beneath the depth of maximal particle flux, estimated from particle size and published sinking rates. Our data are consistent with a model with diel production of particles and their loss by sinking and grazing.

Checkley, DM, Ortner PB, Settle LR, Cummings SR.  1997.  A continuous, underway fish egg sampler. Fisheries Oceanography. 6:58-73.   10.1046/j.1365-2419.1997.00030.x   AbstractWebsite

We describe a method to sample the highly contagious distribution of pelagic fish eggs. CUFES, the continuous, underway fish egg sampler, consists of a submersible pump, concentrator, electronics and sample collector. This system operates continuously and under nearly all sea conditions, providing a real-time estimate of the volumetric abundance of pelagic fish eggs at pump depth, usually 3 m. CUFES-derived estimates of volumetric abundance agree well with those from nets towed at pump depth and with areal abundance estimated from vertically integrated plankton tows. CUFES has been used successfully to sample the eggs of menhaden, pinfish, sardine, and anchovy off the coasts of the eastern and western United States and South Africa. Two large patches of eggs of the Atlantic menhaden were sampled off North Carolina in winter 1993-94, had a linear scale of 5-10 km, and were found in waters between the Gulf Stream and mid-shelf front. Spawning location may he related to bathymetry. CUFES is now being used to estimate spawner biomass by the daily egg production method. An optical plankton counter provided accurate estimates of the number of Atlantic menhaden eggs sample by CUFES.