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Reiss, CS, Checkley DM, Bograd SJ.  2008.  Remotely sensed spawning habitat of Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax) and Northern anchovy (Engraulis mordax) within the California Current. Fisheries Oceanography. 17:126-136.   10.1111/j.1365-2419.2008.00469.x   AbstractWebsite

We use trivariate kernel density estimation to define spawning habitat of northern anchovy (Engraulis mordax) and Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax) in the California Current using satellite data and in situ egg samples from the Continuous Underway Fish Egg Sampler (CUFES) deployed during surveys in April by the California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations (CalCOFI). Observed egg distributions were compared with monthly composite satellite sea surface temperature (SST) and surface chlorophyll a (chl a) data. Based on the preferred spawning habitat, as defined in SST and chl a space, the satellite data were used to predict potential spawning habitat along two areas of the west coast of North America. Data from the southern area (21.5 to 39 degrees N) were compared to observations from the CUFES data for the period 1998-2005. Northern anchovy and Pacific sardine exhibited distinctly different spawning habitat distributions. A significant relationship was found between satellite-based spawning area and that measured during surveys for sardine. CUFES area estimated for sardine was similar in magnitude to that estimated from satellite data (similar to 60 000 km(2)). In contrast, spawning habitat of anchovy averaged between 1000 and 200 000 km(2) for the period 1998-2005, for CUFES and satellite estimates, respectively. Interannual variability in the area (km(2)) and duration (months) of estimates of suitable habitat varied between species and between the northern (39 to 50.5 degrees N) and southern portions of the California Current. Long-term monitoring of habitat variability using remote sensing data is possible in the southern portion of the California Current, and could be improved upon in the northern area with the addition of surveys better timed to describe relationships between observed and estimated spawning habitats.

Cambalik, JJ, Checkley DM, Kamykowski D.  1998.  A new method to measure the terminal velocity of small particles: A demonstration using ascending eggs of the Atlantic menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus). Limnology and Oceanography. 43:1722-1727. AbstractWebsite

A new method, incorporating video, motion analysis, and a novel experimental apparatus, was used to measure the terminal velocity of particles. The method facilitated the investigation of treatment effects and maximized the number of measurements for each replicate, thus improving the statistics for a population of particles. The eggs of the Atlantic menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus) were used to demonstrate the method by investigating the effects of salinity and stage of development on their ascent rate. Egg ascent rate was greatest at intermediate salinity (36.5 parts per thousand) and decreased in the late stage of embryonic development. We estimate eggs at oceanic salinities (>35.5 parts per thousand) in nature to ascend at 0.19-0.25 cm s(-1).

Van der Lingen, CD, Checkley D, Barange M, Hutchings L, Osgood K.  1998.  Assessing the abundance and distribution of eggs of sardine, Sardinops sagax, and round herring, Etrumeus whiteheadi, on the western Agulhas Bank, South Africa, using a continuous, underway fish egg sampler. Fisheries Oceanography. 7:35-47. AbstractWebsite

A continuous, underway fish egg sampler (CUFES) was employed to assess the abundance and distribution of eggs of both sardine, Sardinops sagax, and round herring, Etrumeus whiteheadi, on the Western Agulhas Bank, South Africa, during September 1996. Samples were collected while underway along six inshore/offshore transects, and at stations along the transects. Volumetric estimates of egg density (eggs m(-3)) from on-station CUFES samples were highly correlated with both volumetric and areal (eggs m(-2)) estimates of egg density from samples collected from CalVET net hauls at these stations, demonstrating the validity of this novel sampling technique. Sardine and round herring eggs were encountered in a band running parallel to the coast and extending from 10 to 33 nautical miles offshore to the shelf edge, and highest egg densities were associated with strong north-west-flowing currents in the region of the shelf edge. Collecting samples while underway increased the precision of the estimate of mean egg density for sardine eggs but not for round herring eggs. The use of CUFES in obtaining a fine-scale resolution of sardine egg distribution, and as a tool for stock assessment, are discussed.

Maillet, GL, Checkley DM.  1991.  Storm-related variation in the growth-rate of otoliths of larval Atlantic menhaden Brevoortia tyrannus: a time series analysis of biological and physical variables and implications for larva growth and mortality. Marine Ecology-Progress Series. 79:1-16.   10.3354/meps079001   AbstractWebsite

Vertical mixing induced by storms is hypothesized to modify the spatial and temporal availability of food to fish larvae and thus influence their feeding and growth. We investigated the effects of storms on sagitta growth rates of 2 age classes (3 to 15 d and 16 to 50 d, post-hatching) of larval Atlantic menhaden Brevoortia tyrannus during winter 1986 in Onslow Bay, North Carolina, USA. We tested the null hypothesis that sagitta growth rate of 3 to 15 d and 16 to 50 d old larvae is independent of the timing and intensity of storms by using transfer functions to investigate relationships among daily time series of sagitta growth rate and meterological and oceanographic variables. Variation in sagitta increment widith was greatest during the first 1 to 2 wk after hatching. Reduction in sagitta growth rate coincided with storms and corroborated laboratory results that growth increments are formed daily and stressful events are manifest in sagitta microstructure. Age-related trends in sagitta growth rate were observed for both age classes and were removed from the analysis by a standardization procedure. Fluctuation in sagitta growth rate for 3 to 15 d old larvae was inversely cross-correlated with time series of wind speed. Fluctuation in sagitta growth rate for 16 to 50 d old larvae was inversely cross-correlated with time series of wind speed and heat flux. The pattern of cross-correlations for 3 to 15 d old larvae indicated an immediate response of sagitta growth rate to periods of strong winds while sagitta growth rate in 16 to 50 d old larvae lagged strong winds and heat fluxes by 2 to 5 d. Transfer function models incorporating wind speed and heat flux accounted for 40 to 54% of sagitta growth rate variation. Reduction in larval Atlantic menhaden growth rate during early life is consistent with the critical period concept and may be related to dispersion and aggregation mechanisms coupled to wind-induced vertical mixing and its effect on food concentration and availability.