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Wei, SS, Wiens DA, Zha Y, Plank T, Webb SC, Blackman DK, Dunn RA, Conder JA.  2015.  Seismic evidence of effects of water on melt transport in the Lau back-arc mantle. Nature. 518   10.1038/nature14113   AbstractWebsite

Processes of melt generation and transport beneath back-arc spreading centres are controlled by two endmember mechanisms: decompression melting similar to that at mid-ocean ridges and flux melting resembling that beneath arcs'. The Lau Basin, with an abundance of spreading ridges at different distances from the subduction zone, provides an opportunity to distinguish the effects of these two different melting processes on magma production and crust formation. Here we present constraints on the three-dimensional distribution of partial melt inferred from seismic velocities obtained from Rayleigh wave tomography using land and ocean-bottom seismographs. Low seismic velocities beneath the Central Lau Spreading Centre and the northern Eastern Lau Spreading Centre extend deeper and westwards into the back-arc, suggesting that these spreading centres are fed by melting along upwelling zones from the west, and helping to explain geochemical differences with the Valu Fa Ridge to the south(2), which has no distinct deep low-seismic-velocity anomalies. A region of low S-wave velocity, interpreted as resulting from high melt content, is imaged in the mantle wedge beneath the Central Lau Spreading Centre and the northeastern Lau Basin, even where no active spreading centre currently exists. This low-seismic-velocity anomaly becomes weaker with distance southward along the Eastern Lau Spreading Centre and the Valu Fa Ridge, in contrast to the inferred increase in magmatic productivity(1). We propose that the anomaly variations result from changes in the efficiency of melt extraction, with the decrease in melt to the south correlating with increased fractional melting and higher water content in the magma. Water released from the slab may greatly reduce the melt viscosity(3) or increase grain size(4), or both, thereby facilitating melt transport.

Blackman, DK, Appelgate B, German CR, Thurber AR, Henig AS.  2012.  Axial morphology along the Southern Chile Rise. Marine Geology. 315:58-63.   10.1016/j.margeo.2012.06.001   AbstractWebsite

Morphology of four spreading segments on the southern Chile Rise is described based on multi-beam bathy-metric data collected along the axial zones. The distribution of axial volcanoes, the character of rift valley scarps, and the average depths vary between Segment 1 in the south, terminating at the Chile Triple junction, and Segment 4 in the north, which are separated by three intervening transform faults. Despite this general variability, there is a consistent pattern of clockwise rotation of the southern-most axial volcanic ridge within each of Segments 2, 3, and 4, relative to the overall trend of the rift valley. A combination of local ridge-transform intersection stresses and regional tectonics may influence spreading axis evolution in this sense. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Blackman, DK.  2007.  Use of mineral physics, with geodynamic modelling and seismology, to investigate flow in the Earth's mantle. Reports on Progress in Physics. 70:659-689.   10.1088/0034-4885/70/5/r01   AbstractWebsite

Seismologists and mineral physicists have known for decades that anisotropy inherent in mantle minerals could provide a means to relate surface seismic measurements to deformation patterns at great depth in the Earth, where direct geologic observations would never be possible. Prior to the past decade, only qualitative relationships or simple symmetry assumptions between mantle flow (deformation), mineral alignment and seismic anisotropy were possible. Recent numerical methods now allow quantitative incorporation of constraints from mineral physics to flow/deformation models and, thereby, direct estimates of the resulting pattern of seismic anisotropy can be made and compared with observed signatures. Numerical methods for simulating microstructural deformation within an aggregate of minerals subjected to an arbitrary stress field make it possible to quantitatively link crystal-scale processes with largescale Earth processes of mantle flow and seismic wave propagation, on regional (100s of kilometres) and even global scales. Such linked numerical investigations provide a rich field for exploring inter-dependences of micro and macro processes, as well as a means to determine the extents to which viable seismic experiments could discern between different models of Earth structure and dynamics. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of why and how linked numerical models are useful for exploring processes in the mantle and how they relate to surface tectonics. A brief introduction to the basic concepts of deformation of mantle minerals and the limits of knowledge currently available are designed to serve both the subsequent discussions in this review and as an entry point to more detailed literature for readers interested in pursuing the topic further. The reference list includes both primary sources and pertinent review articles on individual aspects of the combined subjects covered in the review. A series of flow/texturing models illustrate the differences that can arise when different methods or different flow parameters are employed. Representative seismic results illustrate the types of studies done to date and the inferences possible using their anisotropy measurements. Trade-offs involved in the modelling assumptions and seismic data processing methods are touched on. A final example illustrates the effects, relative to a 2D model of mantle flow near a subduction zone, that flow in a third dimension can have on anisotropy patterns.

Becker, TW, Schulte-Pelkum V, Blackman DK, Kellogg JB, O'Connell RJ.  2006.  Mantle flow under the western United States from shear wave splitting. Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 247:235-251.   10.1016/j.epsl.2006.05.010   AbstractWebsite

We show that SKS splitting in the westernmost United States (polarization of the fastest shear waves and splitting times, including their back-azimuthal dependence) can be explained by a geodynamic model that includes a continuum-mechanics description of plate motions and underlying asthenospheric circulation. Models that include a counterflow at depths of similar to 300 km are preferred, which may indicate a far-field effect of the Farallon slab anomaly sinking underneath the central continental United States. This finding is broadly consistent with earlier suggestions, and we demonstrate that a mechanically coupled system, though with a strong viscosity contrast with depth, is consistent with the data. We explore the depth dependence of predicted anisotropy by means of computing seismogram synthetics and comparing synthetic splits with observations. Some patterns in the data, including null observations, are matched well. Linked models of geodynamic flow and mineral alignment in the mantle provide a means to test the relationship between strain and the saturation of texturing. Lower fabric saturation strains than for global models are preferred by the data, which may reflect the relatively active tectonic setting and thin asthenosphere of the study region. In general, our results show that seismic anisotropy, when interpreted jointly with mineral physics theories, may be used to quantitatively constrain the spatial character of flow, and the degree of force coupling, at depth. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Schulte-Pelkum, V, Blackman DK.  2003.  A synthesis of seismic P and S anisotropy. Geophysical Journal International. 154:166-178.   10.1046/j.1365-246X.2003.01951.x   AbstractWebsite

Upper-mantle seismic anisotropy has been observed using a variety of methods, including S and SKS splitting, P and P-n traveltimes, P polarization anomalies and P to S conversions, and surface waves. Care must be taken when comparing the results from different methods because of bias introduced by depth sensitivity, frequency dependence, and simplifying assumptions concerning the form of anisotropy. We examine the differences and show that some apparent contradictions cited in previous studies can be reconciled using simple models. We perform forward modelling on a suite of anisotropic media, progressing from simple elastic symmetries to tensors obtained from laboratory measurements and numerical strain models. The results provide a systematic overview of the effect of a given anisotropy class and geometry on seismic observables. We simulate the full complement of body wave measurements-SKS and S splitting, P-n traveltimes, teleseismic P traveltimes and teleseismic P particle motion (P-pol )-to show any apparent differences between the phases. We also investigate depth and frequency sensitivity using reflectivity modelling in layered anisotropic media. Our principal findings are as follows. (1) No models, including low-order symmetries and multiple layers, exhibit a mean fast shear wave splitting direction nearly orthogonal to a consistent fast direction determined from P observables. For P delays, the azimuthal cos(2theta) variation is representative of the fast direction of anisotropy (rather than cos(1theta), which has led to a certain amount of confusion in the literature). (2) P times average linearly over the raypath; SKS weights toward the upper part of the model; and P-pol and P-n are even more sensitive to shallow anisotropy. Conclusive evidence in the literature for a disagreement between fast directions from SKS , on one hand, and P-n and P (pol), on the other hand, can be explained by layering. (3) The azimuthal dependence of SKS splitting results does not necessarily indicate layered or laterally heterogeneous anisotropy. The azimuthal dependence of SKS splitting is not observed for hexagonal symmetry with horizontal fast or slow axes, but has to be taken into consideration for dipping hexagonal and any orthorhombic and lower symmetry media. Teleseismic S shows a much stronger azimuthal dependence than SKS and SKKS . This makes procedures that stack splitting results over a wide range of incidence angles or azimuths questionable.

Blackman, DK, Kendall JM.  2002.  Seismic anisotropy in the upper mantle 2. Predictions for current plate boundary flow models. Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems. 3   10.1029/2001gc000247   AbstractWebsite

[1] The anisotropic seismic structure due to flow-induced mineral alignment is investigated for a series of models designed to simulate deformation in the upper mantle within a few hundred kilometers of a plate boundary. The orientation distributions of olivine: enstatite aggregates evolve along streamlines of each flow model, based on each grains plastic response to the local stress/strain field. The effective elastic tensor for these textured aggregates provides predictions of P wave anisotropy and shear wave splitting throughout the model space. P and S travel time delay patterns and fast shear wave polarization angles are found to vary significantly with incidence angle for a given model. Comparison of predicted fast P direction for our method versus a finite-strain based estimate shows that agreement is acceptable for much of the model space, but notable differences occur in regions up to several tens of kilometers in size. Two-dimensional models of spreading center flow are presented for slow and fast rates and for several cases in which the ridge migrates over the deeper mantle. The effect of flow in the third dimension is addressed in a few calculations. For one comparison of flow in the mantle wedge at a subduction zone, the introduction of trench parallel flow causes significant changes in the predicted patterns of P wave anisotropy (magnitude, more than orientation) and SKS splitting.

Hall, CE, Fischer KM, Parmentier EM, Blackman DK.  2000.  The influence of plate motions on three-dimensional back arc mantle flow and shear wave. Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth. 105:28009-28033.   10.1029/2000jb900297   AbstractWebsite

Both the polarization direction of the fast shear waves and the types of deformation within overriding plates vary between the back are basins of western Pacific subduction zones. The goal of this study is to test the possibility that motions of the overriding plates may control the patterns of seismic anisotropy and therefore the observed shear wave splitting. We calculated three-dimensional models of viscous asthenospheric flow driven by the motions of the subducting slab and overriding plates. Shear wave splitting was calculated for polymineralic anisotropy within the back are mantle wedge assuming that the anisotropy was created by flow-induced strain. Predicted splitting may differ substantially depending on whether anisotropy is computed directly using polycrystalline plasticity models or is based on the orientation of finite strain. A parameter study shows that: both finite strain and textural anisotropy developed within three-dimensional, plate-coupled asthenospheric flow models are very heterogeneous when back are shearing occurs within the overriding plate. Therefore predicted shear wave splitting varies strongly as a function of plate motion boundary conditions and with ray path through the back are asthenosphere. Flow models incorporating plate motion boundary conditions for the Tonga, southern Kuril, and eastern Aleutian subduction zones produce splitting parameters consistent with observations from each region. Trench-parallel flow generated by small variations in the dip of the subducting plate may be important in explaining observed fast directions of anisotropy sampled within the innermost corner of the mantle wedge.

Cann, JR, Blackman DK, Smith DK, McAllister E, Janssen B, Mello S, Avgerinos E, Pascoe AR, Escartin J.  1997.  Corrugated slip surfaces formed at ridge-transform intersections on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Nature. 385:329-332.   10.1038/385329a0   AbstractWebsite

The strips of ocean crust formed at the inside corners of both transform and non-transform offsets on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge are punctuated by topographic highs-the 'inside-corner highs'(1-3)-where plutonic rocks (including gabbros and peridotites) are frequently found(4,5). Current tectonic models consider the inside-corner highs to be lower-crust and upper-mantle materials that have been exhumed by low-angle detachment faults dipping away from the inside corner to beneath the ridge axis(3,6-8). But much of the evidence for the existence of such faults has hitherto been circumstantial. Here we present sonar images of two ridge-transform intersections on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (near 30 degrees N), which show that both active and 'fossil' inside-corner highs are capped by planar, dipping surfaces marked by corrugations and striations oriented parallel to the plate spreading direction. Although these surfaces may be the low-angle detachment faults envisaged by the models, they dip at much shallower angles than expected. This could be explained by the lubricating presence of serpentinized peridotite, fragments of which have been dredged from both surfaces. Alternatively, these slip surfaces may instead represent failure surfaces in serpentine-lubricated landslide zones.

Blackman, DK, Kendall JM, Dawson PR, Wenk HR, Boyce D, Morgan JP.  1996.  Teleseismic imaging of subaxial flow at mid-ocean ridges: Traveltime effects of anisotropic mineral texture in the mantle. Geophysical Journal International. 127:415-426.   10.1111/j.1365-246X.1996.tb04730.x   AbstractWebsite

Deformation of peridotite caused by mantle how beneath an oceanic spreading centre can result in the development of seismic anisotropy. Traveltime anomalies and shear-wave splitting will develop as seismic energy propagates through such an anisotropic region, thus providing a signature of the deformation field at depth. In this study we investigate the nature of deformation associated with mantle upwelling for two models of flow in the upper 100 km of the mantle. The finite-strain fields of the passive upwelling model versus the buoyancy-enhanced upwelling model are quite different. This suggests that mineral aggregates deform differently in the two models, thus developing seismic signatures that are distinguishable. Numerical estimates of the corresponding mineral textures are made using polycrystal theory for olivine with four operative slip systems. The activation of a slip system is determined for each grain on the basis of the local critical resolved shear stress, The computed grain deformation reflects a balance between stress equilibrium, for the aggregate as a whole, and strain continuity between neighbouring grains within the aggregate. This approach enables a direct link to be made between the model flow fields and the resulting texture development. Given these mineral orientation distributions, elastic parameters are calculated and wavefronts are propagated through the anisotropic structure, Traveltimes for teleseismic body waves are computed using ray theory, and amplitudes are estimated for an across-axis profile extending 100 km from the ridge axis. Relative P-wave residuals of up to 1 s are predicted for the buoyant model with on-axis arrivals being earliest, since near-vertical velocities are fastest beneath the axis. On-axis P-wave arrivals for the passive model are half a second earlier than arrivals 60 km off-axis, and relative delays continue to increase slowly as distance from the ridge increases, S-wave splitting of almost a second is predicted for the buoyant model, whereas less than a half-second of splitting is determined for the passive model.