Velocity structure near IODP Hole U1309D, Atlantis Massif, from waveform inversion of streamer data and borehole measurements

Harding, AJ, Arnulf AF, Blackman DK.  2016.  Velocity structure near IODP Hole U1309D, Atlantis Massif, from waveform inversion of streamer data and borehole measurements. Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems. 17:1990-2014.

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compressional-wave, crustal accretion, depth migration, East Pacific Rise, geophysical, lucky strike volcano, oceanic core complex, oceanic core complexes, reverse-time-migration, sea-floor, seismic-reflection data, signatures, waveform inversion


Seismic full waveform inversion (FWI) is a promising method for determining the detailed velocity structure of the igneous oceanic crust, especially for locations such as the Mid-Atlantic Ridge with significant lateral heterogeneity and seafloor topography. We examine the accuracy of FWI by inverting, after downward continuation to datum just above the seafloor, a multichannel seismic (MCS) profile from Atlantis Massif oceanic core complex at 30 degrees N that passes close to Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Hole U1309D and comparing the results against borehole measurements and existing on-bottom refraction data. The comparisons include the results of IODP Expedition 340T, which extended the sonic logging and vertical seismic profiling to the bottom of the borehole at 1400 m below seafloor. Compared to travel time tomography, the refinement in velocity and velocity gradient produced by FWI significantly improves the overall match to the borehole measurements, and allows the multilevel pattern of deformation and alteration of the detachment footwall seen in Hole U1309D to be extrapolated across the Central Dome. Prestack depth migration of the profile using the FWI velocities reveals the top and edges of the high-velocity, gabbroic core of the massif. It also indicates that the comparatively uniform gabbroic rocks drilled at Hole U1309D extend to approximate to 2.5 km below seafloor but overlie an extended, approximate to 2 km thick, mantle transition zone.