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Agnew, D, Berger J, Buland R, Farrell W.  1976.  International deployment of accelerometers: a network for very long period seismology. EOS Trans. AGU. 57:171-181. Abstract
Agnew, DC.  1978.  1852 Fort Yuma Earthquake - 2 Additional Accounts. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America. 68:1761-1762. AbstractWebsite
Agnew, DC, Sieh KE.  1978.  Documentary Study of Felt Effects of Great California Earthquake of 1857. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America. 68:1717-1729. AbstractWebsite
Agnew, DC, Farrell WE.  1978.  Self-Consistent Equilibrium Ocean Tides. Geophysical Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society. 55:171-181.   10.1111/j.1365-246X.1978.tb04755.x   AbstractWebsite

We compute the static response of the world ocean to an external zonal gravitational potential. The computation includes the effects of the self-attraction of the ocean, and the yielding of the Earth caused both by the external potential and the change in ocean load. We compare the computed tide with measurements of the fortnightly and monthly ocean tides. The short-wavelength departures from equilibrium found by Wunsch are still present. An average of observations at Pacific islands shows that the fortnightly tide departs significantly from equilibrium but the monthly may not. We have also calculated the effects of our computed tide on measurements of tidal gravity and tidal fluctuations in the length of day. Existing tidal gravity data are too imprecise to enable us to determine whether or not the spatial average of the ocean tides departs from equilibrium. The length of day data suggest that the monthly tide is farther from equilibrium than the fortnightly. We have not been able to resolve the apparent discrepancy between the length of day and ocean tide data.

Agnew, DC, Berger J.  1978.  Vertial Seismic Noise at Very Low-Frequencies. Journal of Geophysical Research. 83:5420-5424.   10.1029/JB083iB11p05420   AbstractWebsite

We use records from the Project IDA modified LaCoste gravimeters to investigate ground noise at. frequencies from 1 to 10 mHz. At most sites the level between 2 and 10 mHz is nearly flat and close to 2 × 10−18 m2 s−3 Much higher values which are observed at island and coastal stations are due to loading by waves trapped along the shore. Data from the superconducting gravimeter at Piñon Flat Geophysical Observatory show that the noise power increases as ƒ−2.7 for frequencies between 1 and 0.001 mHz.

Legg, M, Agnew D.  1979.  The 1862 earthquake in San Diego. Earthquake and Other perils: San Diego region. ( Abbott PL, Elliott WJ, Eds.).:139-141., San Diego: San Diego Association of Geologists Abstract
Agnew, D. C; Legg, SM; C.  1979.  Earthquake history of San Diego. Earthquake and Other perils: San Diego region. ( Abbott PL, Elliott WJ, Eds.).:123-138., San Diego: San Diego Association of Geologists Abstract
Jones, G, Hilde T, Sharman G, Agnew D.  1979.  Fault patterns in outer trench wals and their tectonic significance. Journal of Physical Earth. 26:S85-S101. Abstract
Berger, J, Agnew DC, Parker RL, Farrell WE.  1979.  Seismic System Calibration 2. Cross-Spectral Calibration Using Random Binary Signals. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America. 69:271-288. AbstractWebsite
Agnew, D.  1979.  Tsunami history of San Diego. Earthquake and Other perils: San Diego region. ( Abbott PL, Elliott WJ, Eds.).:117-122., San Diego: San Diego Association of Geologists Abstract
Riedesel, MA, Agnew D, Berger J, Gilbert F.  1980.  Stacking for the frequencies and Qs of 0S0 and 1S0. Geophysical Journal International. 62:457-471.   10.1111/j.1365-246X.1980.tb04867.x   AbstractWebsite

Using nine IDA records for the Indonesian earthquake of 1977 August 19, we have formed an optimal linear combination of the records and have measured the frequency and Q of 0S0 and 1S0. The frequency was measured using the moment ratio method. The attenuation was measured by the minimum width method and by the time-lapse method. The frequency and attenuation were measured simultaneously by varying them to obtain a best fit to the data. A 2000-hr stack, the sum of nine individual records, for 0S0 gave a frequency of 0.814664 mHz±4 ppm. The values for the Q of 0S0 for the three different methods of measurement were 5600,5833 and 5700, respectively. The error in the estimates of Q-1 is about 5 per cent for the minimum power method. For 1S0 a 300-hr stack yielded a frequency of 1.63151 mHz±30 ppm. The values of Q for this mode were 1960, 1800 and 1850, respectively, with an error in Q-1 of about 12 per cent for the minimum power method.

Agnew, DC.  1981.  Nonlinearity in Rock - Evidence from Earth Tide. Journal of Geophysical Research. 86:3969-3978.   10.1029/JB086iB05p03969   AbstractWebsite

The earth is sinusoidally stressed by tidal forces; if the stress-strain relation for rock is nonlinear, energy should appear in an earth tide record at frequencies which are multiples of those of the larger tidal lines. An examination of the signals to be expected for different nonlinear deformation laws shows that for a nonlinear response without dissipation, the largest anomalous signal should occur at twice the forcing frequency, whereas for nonlinear laws involving dissipation (cusped hysteresis loops) the anomalous signal will be greatest at 3 times this frequency. The size of the signal in the dissipative case depends on the amount by which dissipation affects the particular response being measured. For measurements of strain tides this depends on whether dissipation is assumed to be present throughout the earth or localized around the point of measurement. An analysis of 5.7 years of strain tide records from Piñon Flat, California, shows a small signal at twice the frequency of the largest (M2) tide. Most of the observed signal can be explained by loading from nonlinear water tides in the Gulf of California and the Pacific Ocean; the residual nonlinear tide is 65 dB less than the M2 tide. The signal at 3 times the M2 frequency is compatible with a linear model or with nonlinear hysteresis loops provided that nonlinear dissipation occurs throughout the earth. Nonlinear dissipation in the rocks near the strainmeter would produce a larger signal than is seen.

Wyatt, F, Cabaniss G, Agnew DC.  1982.  A Comparison of Tiltmeters at Tidal Frequencies. Geophysical Research Letters. 9:743-746.   10.1029/GL009i007p00743   AbstractWebsite

Different techniques for measuring crustal deformation are now being tested at Piñon Flat Geophysical Observatory in southern California. As a part of this comparison, we have analyzed five months of data from four different tiltmeters: three borehole instruments, two 4.5 m and one 26 m deep; and a long-base (535 m) instrument at the surface. For periods from 1 hour to 10 days, the signals from the deep borehole and long-base instruments show comparable noise levels; the shallow instruments are much noisier. Tidal analyses give results for the different sensors which agree to within the errors, which are several percent.

Wyatt, F, Agnew D, Linde A, Sacks IS.  1983.  Borehole Stranimeter studies in Pinon flat observatory. Carnegie Institute of Washington, Yearbook 82, Washington DC. :533-538. Abstract
Agnew, DC.  1983.  Conservation of Mass in Tidal Loading Computations. Geophysical Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society. 72:321-325.   10.1111/j.1365-246X.1983.tb03786.x   AbstractWebsite

A re-examination of methods for including mass conservation in tidal loading shows that the spherical harmonic correction of Farrell is incorrect. The effect of unconserved mass for a nearly ocean-covered earth shows that the proper spherical harmonic expansion of the Newtonian Green function is the average of the internal and external expansions.

Wyatt, F, Bilham R, Beavan J, Sylvester AG, Owen T, Harvey A, Macdonald C, Jackson DD, Agnew DC.  1984.  Comparing Tiltmeters for Crustal Deformation Measurement - A Preliminary Report. Geophysical Research Letters. 11:963-966.   10.1029/GL011i010p00963   AbstractWebsite

A collection of high-precision tiltmeters is being operated at Piñon Flat Observatory, southern California, both to compare instruments and to measure tectonic deformation. We report on 1.2 years of data from four of these: two Michelson-Gale long fluid tiltmeters, one long center-pressure tiltmeter, and a shallow borehole tiltmeter. The three long-base instruments are all located on the same baseline, with a precise leveling line running between their end-monuments. At nontidal frequencies, only the two Michelson-Gale instruments show some coherence (γ² = .3 for periods of 2 to 4 days), while the center-pressure instrument is correlated with air temperature at periods from a few days to a few weeks. The most stable tilt record shows a secular rate of 0.28 µrad/a, which may be real. Over much longer times, leveling to specially stabilized benchmarks should confirm this. Comparing instruments has identified more and less successful measurement techniques; it appears that low-noise data will most probably be produced only by relatively complex and expensive instruments, though even for these, the operating costs over any reasonable lifetime will exceed the capital cost. Even the best existing sensors must be improved to measure continuous tectonic motions.

Liu, HP, Sembera ED, Westerlund RE, Fletcher JB, Reasenberg P, Agnew DC.  1985.  Tidal Variation of Seismic Travel-Times in a massachusetts Granite Quarry. Geophysical Research Letters. 12:243-246.   10.1029/GL012i005p00243   AbstractWebsite

Conflicting results on tidal variation of seismic travel times exist in the literature. With improved methods, we have conducted a seismic survey at a Massachusetts granite quarry. The survey was conducted in the intervals (230d 23h, 231d11h) and (231d22h, 233d10h), 1983 (U.T.) along a 148 m baseline situated in nearly flat topography. The source for the present experiment was an air gun placed in a mud-filled pit. Travel times for the first five body wave extrema were analyzed. The results are: I. The 1st, 2nd, 4th, and 5th extrema show travel time variations; the 3rd extremum remains constant throughout the experiment. The magnitude of the fractional travel time variation, Δt/t, ranges from 0.5 to 0.9%. II. Changes in travel times of the 1st and 2nd extrema correspond to opposite changes in travel times of the 4th and 5th extrema. III. Two sets of nearly orthogonal joint systems are observed in the granite; the theoretical tidal strain in the direction perpendicular to the nearly vertical joints matches the travel time variations of the 1st and 2nd extrema whereas the tidal strain in the direction perpendicular to the nearly horizontal sheets matches the travel time variations of the 4th and 5th extrema, when a 4-hr delay is introduced for all the tidal strains. These results are interpreted in terms of the velocity changes of seismic rays as the two joint systems open and close due to the tidal stress.

Agnew, DC.  1986.  Detailed Analysis of Tide-Gauge Data - A Case-History. Marine Geodesy. 10:231-255. AbstractWebsite
Agnew, DC, Berger J, Farrell WE, Gilbert JF, Masters G, Miller D.  1986.  Project IDA: a decade in review. EOS Trans. AGU. 67:203-212. Abstract
Agnew, DC.  1986.  Strainmeters and Tiltmeters. Reviews of Geophysics. 24:579-624. AbstractWebsite
Agnew, D.  1987.  The continuous measurement of crustal deformation. Methods of experimental physics 24, Part B, Geophysics. Field measurements. ( Sammis CG, Henyey TL, Celotta R, Eds.).:409-439., London; New-York: Academic press ; Abstract
Davis, PM, Rydelek PA, Agnew DC, Okamura AT.  1987.  Observation of Tidal Tilt on Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii. Geophysical Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society. 90:233-244.   10.1111/j.1365-246X.1987.tb00682.x   AbstractWebsite

We have analysed the east-west tilt components, O1, K1, N2, M2 and S2 from a continuously recording tiltmeter located in Uwekahuna Vault on Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, for the period 1971—79. Detailed analysis of the M2 component gives values of 30.9 ± 2.0 (95 per cent) nrad and 116.0 ± 2.0° for the amplitude and phase, respectively, compared to values of 48.5 nrad and 139.4° for the equilibrium tide. the total theoretical tide, found by summing the equilibrium and load tides, amounts to 37.2 nrad at a phase of 121.7°. the 20 per cent discrepancy with that observed may be due to an inaccurate cotical chart, cavity effects in the vault, strain—tilt coupling or an inappropriate solid earth model. In the vicinity of Hawaii (≤ 3°) two independent cotidal charts give almost identical results for the near field ocean load. At greater distances, we use the Schwiderski (1978) cotidal chart. We estimate that local cavity and strain—tilt coupling effects are less than 12 per cent owing to the agreement between geodetically determined and instrumental tilt but we can not rule out regional effects. Assuming these are small and the cotical charts correct, we find that the M2 results are brought into satisfactory agreement if, instead of using an average oceanic earth model in the (< 75 km) vicinity of Hawaii, we use an earth model with nearly one-half the oceanic rigidity. Such a low upper mantle and crustal rigidity is consistent with Kilauea's position above the thermal upwelling associated with the Hawaiian hotspot.

Wyatt, FK, Morrissey ST, Agnew DC.  1988.  Shallow Borehole Tilt - A Reprise. Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth and Planets. 93:9197-9201.   10.1029/JB093iB08p09197   AbstractWebsite

We describe results from nearly a decade of tilt measurements produced by two arrays of shallow borehole tiltmeters: one in a semiarid environment at Piñon Flat Observatory (PFO), California (depth of burial 4.5 m) and the other in a maritime-Arctic environment at Adak, Alaska (depth of burial 2 m). Although renovation and reinstallation of the instruments at the two sites reduced thermal noise, it did not change the secular records significantly. This implies that the large tilts observed reflect instability of the ground rather than the sensor, so that deeper installations should give better results. The PFO data show large rainfall-related tilts (caused by near-surface weathering) and also periodic temperature-related tilts (from several thermoelastic effects). The Adak data are dominated by tilts from the annual temperature cycle (though by a smaller amount than at PFO), but at other frequencies they show essentially the same power levels as at PFO. Both data sets confirm earlier results that burial at such shallow depths, even in apparently stable material, is inadequate for the measurement of tectonic tilts.

King, NE, Agnew DC, Wyatt F.  1988.  Comparing Strain Events - A Case-Study for the Homestead Valley Earthquakes. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America. 78:1693-1706. AbstractWebsite