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Davis, PM, Rydelek PA, Agnew DC, Okamura AT.  1987.  Observation of Tidal Tilt on Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii. Geophysical Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society. 90:233-244.   10.1111/j.1365-246X.1987.tb00682.x   AbstractWebsite

We have analysed the east-west tilt components, O1, K1, N2, M2 and S2 from a continuously recording tiltmeter located in Uwekahuna Vault on Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, for the period 1971—79. Detailed analysis of the M2 component gives values of 30.9 ± 2.0 (95 per cent) nrad and 116.0 ± 2.0° for the amplitude and phase, respectively, compared to values of 48.5 nrad and 139.4° for the equilibrium tide. the total theoretical tide, found by summing the equilibrium and load tides, amounts to 37.2 nrad at a phase of 121.7°. the 20 per cent discrepancy with that observed may be due to an inaccurate cotical chart, cavity effects in the vault, strain—tilt coupling or an inappropriate solid earth model. In the vicinity of Hawaii (≤ 3°) two independent cotidal charts give almost identical results for the near field ocean load. At greater distances, we use the Schwiderski (1978) cotidal chart. We estimate that local cavity and strain—tilt coupling effects are less than 12 per cent owing to the agreement between geodetically determined and instrumental tilt but we can not rule out regional effects. Assuming these are small and the cotical charts correct, we find that the M2 results are brought into satisfactory agreement if, instead of using an average oceanic earth model in the (< 75 km) vicinity of Hawaii, we use an earth model with nearly one-half the oceanic rigidity. Such a low upper mantle and crustal rigidity is consistent with Kilauea's position above the thermal upwelling associated with the Hawaiian hotspot.

Knopoff, L, Rydelek PA, Zurn W, Agnew DC.  1989.  Observations of Load Tides at the South-Pole. Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors. 54:33-37.   10.1016/0031-9201(89)90184-2   AbstractWebsite

The use of tidal observations to study the ‘nearly diurnal free wobble’ mode of the Earth is possible if oceanic effects in the tidal record are accurately removed. We have analyzed vertical gravity data from the South Pole to determine the amplitude and phase of the small daily and semidaily tides observed at the Pole. Since these signals at the Pole are most probably caused by oceanic tides, our observations provide an excellent target for the oceanic models. A comparison with the best models of the oceans now available indicates the need for improvement in measuring and modeling the southern oceans.

Agnew, DC.  1995.  Ocean-Load Tides at the South-Pole - A Validation fo Recent Ocean-Tide Models. Geophysical Research Letters. 22:3063-3066.   10.1029/95gl03074   AbstractWebsite

Small diurnal and semidiurnal gravity tides are seen at the South Pole because of the loading by and attraction of the ocean tides. These data provide a check on the quality of ocean-tide models, especially in the southernmost ocean, which has historically been the most lacking in tidal data. Ocean-tide models developed in the 1980's did not predict the gravity tides at this location very well. Recently-developed models based on the Topex/Poseidon altimetric data and improved hydrodynamical modeling agree much better with the observations, provided that the tides beneath the ice shelves are included. The level of agreement at this remote location suggests that, loads from very local tides aside, the new generation of ocean-tide models can predict the loading tides to very high accuracy.

Borsa, AA, Agnew DC, Cayan DR.  2014.  Ongoing drought-induced uplift in the western United States. Science.   10.1126/science.1260279   AbstractWebsite

The western United States has been experiencing severe drought since 2013. The solid earth response to the accompanying loss of surface and near-surface water mass should be a broad region of uplift. We use seasonally-adjusted time series from continuously operating GPS stations to measure this uplift, which we invert to estimate mass loss. The median uplift is 4 mm, with values up to 15 mm in California’s mountains. The associated pattern of mass loss, which ranges up to 50 cm of water equivalent, is consistent with observed decreases in precipitation and streamflow. We estimate the total deficit to be about 240 Gt, equivalent to a 10 cm layer of water over the entire region, or the annual mass loss from the Greenland Ice Sheet.